When a person has a lot of pressure or constant friction on a person’s skin for a long time, it begins to “defend”. She has to keep her superficial, dead cells on the surface, not allowing them to peel off – then the chance that the deep layers, where the vessels and nerves pass, are immunoglobulins and other beneficial substances, will suffer less from the traumatic effect. So there are dry corns. On the legs, which not only support the weight of the whole body, but are also placed in uncomfortable shoes, this happens more often than on the hands. It is possible to get rid of areas of excessive keratinization by applying constant efforts.
Why do dry corns appear?
To understand what a dry callus is, what it consists of, and what measures need to be taken to bring it out in a short time, consider the structure of the skin and the causes of healing.
How does the skin
The skin or integumentary tissue is the longest organ. He first meets the conditions of the external environment, and significantly weakens or completely suppresses adverse factors. Protective properties due to the two-layer structure of skin tissue.
This is the name of the outer layer, whose name translates as “located above the dermis”. In its structure, it resembles a brick wall of 5 layers. Below are the cells that give rise to the rest of the layers, while the latter is a series consisting of dead plates with high strength, due to the keratin protein. The greater the load experienced by the skin, the thicker this last layer.
If the epidermis could be compared with several rows of bricks, then the structure of the dermis is described as a water-spring mattress. It consists of:
- various cells: forming the remaining dermal structures, destroying microbes that have penetrated the epidermis and are involved in immune-inflammatory reactions;
- intercellular matrix – a gel-like substance that provides the skin with the ability to straighten after gathering it in a fold and not to be damaged when the joint is bent;
- sebaceous and sweat glands;
- hair follicles;
- nerve terminals and special structures associated with nerves that react to pressure, vibration, cold or heat.
How does keratinization occur
As the cells grow older, the epidermis rises higher, parting with its structure (the older the person, the longer this process takes). They accumulate first substance eleidin, then it turns into keratin. After 28 days in young people, or 72 days in people older than 40 years, the upper, horny layer of skin peels off. Together with the scales, mechanical impurities, salts, ammonia and other substances that were on the surface, excreted with sweat, disappear.
This is a local thickening of the skin caused by its frequent mechanical irritation. It usually occurs above the joints; no less often dry corns are formed on the toes, in the places of their friction.
Outside, such structures are covered with a large number of dead cells – corneocytes, which do not have time to exfoliate. In medicine, this phenomenon is called hyperkeratosis.
Inside the layers of keratinized scales there is a cone-shaped core, directed top down, into deep layers. If the cone is of sufficient length and cartilaginous density, the formation is called a corn with a rod. It occurs either around a foreign body remaining in the skin (chips, grains of sand, a small fragment), or in place of a wet corn (“dropsy”). Axial center hyperkeratosis is also a sign of a papillomavirus or fungal infection.
When the top of the core reaches the nerve endings, the callus becomes extremely painful.
- between the nameless and little finger on the foot;
- between 1 and 2 toes;
- on the pads under the toes;
- among the heels.
On the palms of such formations almost never occur. Get rid of dry corns with the core is much more difficult. The best option is to remove formations with a laser.
Who is more susceptible to the formation of dry corns?
It has long been found out what causes such areas of excessive keratinization. This is the performance of work related to the pressure and friction of certain skin zones:
- about the handle of the manual working tool;
- about sports equipment;
- about musical instruments;
- pathologies leading to foot deformities (arthrosis, arthritis);
- when untrained or overweight people have to walk for a long time;
- wearing shoes, worn on a loose toe, which will form in it folds;
- uncomfortable shoes. In this and the three previous cases, dry callus is formed on the foot.
Sometimes callousness is not only a cosmetic defect, but also the first sign that their “owner” suffers from diseases such as:
- Diabetes. Treatment of dry corn in this pathology only by local means, without correction of glucose level is useless.
- Vascular diseases of the lower extremities, in which the nutrition of the foot tissues is disturbed. This is atherosclerosis, varicose veins, obliterating endarteritis.
- Low amount of vitamins A or E in the body. This leads to drying of the skin, reducing skin resistance to various infections.
- Fungal infection. At the same time, the entire skin of the foot becomes dry, and the area on the heels or in the area of the transverse arch of the foot reddens, thickens and cracks. The main remedy for dry corns here is a local antifungal drug.
The area of hardened skin without a rod inside has the appearance of education with clear boundaries, rounded shape. The color of the structure is yellowish, there may be a slight reddening around. To touch the callus has a special dry skin, with pressure – painless.
Corn looks like:
- rounded area of hardened skin, resembling a mushroom cap;
- yellowish or whitish color;
- painful with pressure;
- in the middle there is a crust, the removal of which reveals a bright deepening of increased density.
What to do during the development of dry corn? It is imperative to heal, otherwise, because of the pain experienced while walking or working, you will start to put your foot or place your palm on the working tool incorrectly. This will lead to a change in the axis of the joints, which can result in arthrosis or arthritis.
Removal of dry corns with a rod is necessary, since they often crack, pathogenic microorganisms get into these “gaps”, infecting them and getting an opportunity to be sucked into the blood and cause its infection.
Treatment of painless formations
To cure a dry callus that has recently appeared, has no core, has not cracked and has not been infected, is not difficult. For this:
1. Examine for conditions that lead to the permanent formation of hyperkeratotic sites. This is done in collaboration with four specialists:
- endocrinologist (he excludes, first of all, diabetes);
- vascular surgeon: this doctor examines the condition of the vessels in the legs and arms;
- a neurologist who can prescribe appropriate treatment if hyperkeratosis sites occur due to the pathology of nerve fibers in the limbs;
- a dermatologist who will order an examination for papillomavirus and fungal infection.
2. Carry out hygienic procedures: steam your feet in a soap-soda solution, then treat the coarsened areas with a pumice stone, foot scrub. Apply fat cream on clean and dried feet. It can be a baby cream with D-panthenol, Bepanten ointment or a mixture of baby cream and oily vitamin A, prepared on its own, in a 1: 1 ratio.
3. Change your shoes to a comfortable, suitable for the weather and purpose. It should be seamless inside, with an arch support, a wide back, a rather wide toe and a 3-4 cm heel.
Tactics of removal of painful and rod formations
Consider how to get rid of dry corns with a core, cracks and those that cause pain when walking. First of all, you need to perform all the actions specified in the previous algorithm.
Home treatment is applied in cases of:
- Uninfected (that is, not reddened, not turned bluish, without purulent or blood-sucking) dry corns.
- Those that are not caused by fungus.
- The cause of which is not HPV.
It consists in the implementation of two main actions: decoupling a section of callus and applying local means (pharmaceutical or folk) on it, which will exfoliate extra volumes of dead cells. If these funds prove to be ineffective, as well as for the fungal or human papillomavirus nature of dry corns, operations should be performed to remove these defects.
They are needed to soften the treated areas. Must follow the following rules:
- Do not be too hot (maximum – 45 ° C).
- The exposure time is 15-20 minutes, until the water cools.
- The volume of the bath is about 5 liters of water. You can add to it:
– 2 tbsp. l grated soap, together with 10 tsp. soda,
– decoctions of chamomile, St. John’s wort, celandine;
– 4 tbsp. l sea salt, you can – in combination with 1 liter of milk, whey or cream, if the skin is very dry;
– 3-4 Art. l starch;
– a few crystals of potassium permanganate, so that the solution becomes slightly pink – if there is no pronounced dry skin.
After the bath, the skin is wiped dry, treated with pumice or sawing. Next, it is applied to a fat cream, ointment from dry corns (about it – below), or another keratolytic agent of pharmaceutical or folk origin. After a while, it will also be necessary to wash it off and apply fat cream on the treated area.
How to remove dry corn? It is necessary to put on it a tool that destroys the connection between the extra layers of keratinized scales. It can be:
- Preparations with salicylic acid. For example, salicylic ointment or salipod plaster. They are applied as an ointment or plaster on steamed, but towel-dried skin that produces a peeling effect, destroying the connections between an array of dead cells, exfoliating them. On the same action is based Nemosol cream. Salicylate in its composition softens and promotes the separation of corns, while sulfur has an antiseptic and antifungal effect, healing wounds and cracks in areas of hyperkeratosis.
- Hydrocolloid based products. This plaster Compid. Made of silicone, it creates a humid environment in the hardening zone, while salicylic acid inside the array of corneocytes works. Compeed plasters are available in various forms, which are conveniently glued to interdigital spaces or heels. They do not need to be removed until they themselves come unstuck.
- Trichloroacetic acid gels. For example, Wartner gel. It comes in the form of an easy-to-use applicator pen.
- Means on the basis of coolants, for example, Kriofarm. Horn particles are removed due to the cessation of nourishment of the surface area of the skin, which initially looks like a blister, which then disappears.
- Phenol-based drugs that burn the hyperkeratosis site.
- Means based on natural ingredients. For example, celandine (Super Clean, Papillek). Drugs are applied only to the corn, bypassing healthy skin, not rubbed. It usually takes 5-7 days to remove corn from celandine.
- Combined funds. They contain both chemical and natural keratolytic components.
Treatment of dry corns at home with the drug Superpistotel
Corn removal with salipod plaster
The following recipes are used in folk medicine:
- A few drops of celandine juice, previously washed, is applied to the pathological area.
- Onion gruel is applied to the corn, covered with polyethylene, fixed with a plaster for 20-30 minutes.
- You can make a cake of grated raw potatoes, bandaging it with a bandage, leaving for the night.
- Cut aloe leaf, which is applied to the corn for 24 hours.
- Propolis is applied directly to the corn, fixed on top with a plaster.
The main methods of treatment carried out by a specialist are the removal of pathology with a laser, electric current or liquid nitrogen, and a medical pedicure.
- Laser removal of dry calluses is indicated for viral and fungal lesions, infected and corns. The laser beam bleeds and painlessly evaporates dead tissue, usually does it in 1 session.
- Removal with liquid nitrogen is used for small hyperkeratotic areas (for example, on a finger), since the depth of exposure to cold is difficult to predict, unlike a laser. After cryotherapy, wet necrosis (blister) occurs, which heals more slowly than after laser treatment. A repeated cryodestruction session may be required.
- Electrocoagulation is used less frequently than the first two methods of treatment. After such removal of the corn, a dry crust also remains.
- Medical pedicure, which is carried out by a doctor-podolog or a dermatologist. Read more about the procedure in the article Features of the medical pedicure.
Surgical removal of the core