Disruption of blood microcirculation in the brain is a serious deviation, which can be caused by vascular diseases, adverse environmental conditions and a number of other factors.
Under their influence a gradual narrowing of the lumen of the blood vessels occurs, cholesterol plaques form on their walls, they lose their elasticity and, as a result, become fragile. Against this background, blood circulation slows down, which leads to the appearance of alarming symptoms.
This condition is extremely dangerous, so it requires the mandatory use of special medication with vasodilator effect. Properly prescribed means restore blood flow and prevent the death of brain cells, thereby normalizing its functioning.
Why do I need to expand the vessels?
The main goal that needs to be achieved when prescribing vasodilator drugs is to ensure the transport of oxygen to the brain tissues. Vascular dilation occurs, the intensity of blood flow decreases. This contributes to the fact that oxygen and nutrients are freely transported to the brain tissues, and waste materials and carbon dioxide from the brain tissues to the blood. This property of vasodilating drugs is especially important and necessary if:
- There is a squeezing of the vessel by the resulting edema, tumor or bone growth. For this reason, vasodilators are prescribed to patients with osteochondrosis of the cervical vertebrae. This allows you to normalize blood circulation in the brain, despite the swelling and formation of osteophytes.
- The vessel is clogged with a blood clot or cholesterol plaque. Also, vasodilator drugs are needed if the vessel wall has become thicker due to the inflammatory process occurring in it.
All drugs prescribed for this purpose have an effect on small and medium blood vessels.
Vasodilator drugs are also shown in hypertension. In this case, the components of the drug act directly on large vessels. Under the influence of medication, they expand, and their capacity becomes larger. Due to this, there is a smooth decrease in blood pressure.
There is a certain classification of vasodilating drugs according to the purpose of their use. So, these drugs can be used to:
- treatment of cardiac pathologies (in particular, with the development of stenocardia);
- decrease in blood pressure indicators;
- improve blood circulation in the brain vessels (with cephalalgia, cervical osteochondrosis, tinnitus, etc.);
- relief of migraine attacks;
- reduction of intraocular pressure (for example, with developed glaucoma);
- treatment of foot vascular pathologies (obliterating atherosclerosis, endarteritis, etc.).
Virtually each of the groups of vasodilating drugs is divided into subgroups. They act on the same vessels (large, medium, small), only the points of influence are different.
Based on this, the doctor when choosing a drug is guided by certain criteria, namely:
- the purpose of the expansion of blood vessels;
- specific vessels, the tissues of which must be affected;
- the presence of chronic diseases in the patient (for some diseases, specific drugs are strictly prohibited to use).
The mechanism of action of vasodilating drugs is based on the normalization of cerebral blood flow, strengthening and relaxation of vessels affected by spasm. A doctor prescribing such drugs relies on certain goals:
- improve blood flow in the brain vessels;
- to ensure the enrichment of cells of the body with oxygen and beneficial substances;
- stabilize brain activity.
Vasodilator drugs prevent brain hypoxia, thereby eliminating the risk of death of its cells. In addition, these drugs contribute to:
- normalization of venous circulation;
- improvement of the metabolism process;
- restoration of normal blood flow in the cervical vessels with osteochondrosis;
- stabilization of energy metabolism in the neurons of the brain;
- relief of GM spasms.
In order to improve the work of the central nervous system, vasodilators of a new generation are used, which differ in direction and mechanism of their effect. Based on this, this group of drugs is divided into:
- Alpha blockers. Such drugs expand the lumen and increase the peripheral blood circulation. They reduce the concentration of cholesterol in the blood and normalize the indicators of glucose.
- Calcium channel blockers with a relaxing and vasodilator effect. Due to this, the walls of the capillaries and the coronary arteries dilate, blood pressure drops. This helps prevent calcium from entering the brain cells.
- Vasodilator substances that reduce the intensity of blood flow and blood pressure on the walls of blood vessels. They help to increase the arterial lumen and improve the nutrition of tissues and cells of the body.
- Neurotropic drugs that improve the peripheral part of the central nervous system.
- Myotropic antispasmodics. Their action is aimed at reducing muscle tone.
- Disaggregant. Such drugs have an antithrombotic effect and narrow the volume of blood flow gaps.
For adjuvant therapy, homeopathic medicines, herbal remedies and dietary supplements are prescribed.
Preparations for cerebral vessels
Vasodilator drugs for the brain have some differences in their mechanism of action. However, their main disadvantage is that they can also affect other blood vessels in the body, which often leads to an excessive decrease in blood pressure. It is for this reason that they should not be used by people prone to hypotension.
Among modern vasoconstrictor drugs for the brain are very popular:
- Piracetam, contributing to more intensive removal of glucose from the body. In parallel, the drug improves blood circulation in the brain cells, relieves headache and dizziness.
- Vazobral – a drug that promotes the normalization of cerebral circulation, reduce the permeability of the vascular walls, improve mental activity. It helps to normalize memory and attention, as well as the elimination of complications from the vestibular apparatus. The drug is prescribed in the dosage of 0.5 – 1 tablet in the morning and evening. Vasobral can be administered in the form of a solution, then its dose is from 2 to 4 ml twice a day.
- Mexidol – tablets for oral administration and solution for injection. It is used to improve blood circulation in the vessels of the brain and their expansion, enriching its cells with oxygen and reducing cholesterol levels.
- Actovegin – one of the most effective drugs with vasodilating properties. It actively removes excess glucose from the body, relieves spasm of cerebral vessels, stimulates blood circulation.
If a patient suffers from manifestations of atherosclerotic processes, then with the help of vasodilators it is possible not only to stop them, but also to improve the functioning of the brain. High-speed medications that have this effect are:
- Papaverine – pills and injections that relieve spasm of cerebral vessels, as well as smooth muscles of the peritoneal organs.
- Cavinton is a vasodilating drug that eliminates disturbances in the process of cerebral circulation. It has a beneficial effect on the vessels of the brain, relieves spasm and expands the lumen of blood vessels.
- Angionorm – a drug that has a vasodilating effect and a beneficial effect on mental activity. It improves physical endurance, increases the stress resistance of the body and normalizes the psycho-emotional state of a person.
Almost all drugs for the brain have antihypertensive properties. For this reason, they can only be prescribed by a doctor, who will indicate the dosage and write out a detailed treatment regimen. She needs to follow relentlessly to avoid dangerous consequences.
Brain Stroke Drug List
Blood clots in the blood vessels of the brain, hypoxia, diabetes mellitus, deficiency of vitamins and elements – these are the factors that can cause the development of ischemic stroke. To restore brain activity and reduce blood pressure, the patient is assigned special vasodilator drugs:
- Clopidogrel is a drug that is prescribed to patients who have had an attack of ischemic stroke, as well as to persons who have been found to have an increased aggregation of blood clots. The daily dose is short 1 tablet.
- Crestarium. This drug is recommended to be included in the treatment regimen for ischemic stroke as an adjuvant. It also helps well with a significant increase in blood pressure. Take 1-2 tablets. per day once. It is advisable to receive in the morning.
- Ceraxon, which is composed of a nootropic active ingredient, promotes the regeneration of brain cells and tissues after an episode of ischemic stroke suffered by the patient. Reduces the risk of memory disorders and thought processes, and also prevents a decrease in concentration. After suffering TBI, reduces the duration of associated symptoms. For ischemic stroke, intravenous administration of the drug in a dosage of 1000 ml is recommended.
Vasodilators in osteochondrosis
Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine leads to compression of the arteries, which leads to disruption of the blood supply to the brain. As a result, a person complains of constant fatigue, headache, dizziness, tinnitus and other unpleasant symptoms. This pathology requires an integrated therapeutic approach, including taking medications, conducting physiotherapy sessions, and doing special exercises for the neck.
The treatment regimen necessarily includes vasodilators. Often, doctors resort to the use of:
- Xantinol nicotinate.
The main task of treatment in osteochondrosis is the restoration of blood circulation, the relief of cerebral cell hypoxia, the establishment of the metabolic process and the improvement of the nerve fiber conductive function. Since osteochondrosis is a very complex and dangerous neurological disease, only a neuropathologist can prescribe medication.
Medicines to improve cerebral circulation in the elderly
Older people often have problems with memory, there is a decrease in concentration, deterioration of hearing and vision. In such situations, Nootropyl and Fenotropil preparations help well. They can even be used for maintenance therapy in Alzheimer’s patients.
Equally effective are the Ginko, Memoplant and Tanakan products. They improve memory, correct vision and hearing, give elasticity to blood vessels and are able to restore speech abilities and physical motility.
Synthetic vasodilators can cause a number of side effects. They can manifest in the form of:
- failure of the kidneys and liver;
- addiction of the body to the components of the drug;
Any vasodilator medication has contraindications for use, so they should be used only as prescribed by a doctor!
Stimulation of blood circulation folk remedies
If a particular synthetic drug is contraindicated in a patient, the following folk remedies will help to deal with the symptoms of an unpleasant pathology:
- Decoction of hawthorn leaves and periwinkle. To prepare the medicine, it is necessary to mix 1 tsp. each of the herbs and pour 2 cups of boiling water. Put on the fire, boil and leave to infuse for 2 hours. Take ½ cup before meals.
- Lemon and orange, from which you must first remove the bones (zest must be left!), Twist in a meat grinder. Add to mass with 2 tbsp. l fresh honey and mix well. Let it stand for a day, after which take 15 ml of medicine 3 times a day. This tool helps to cleanse the blood vessels.
- 10 pieces of mulberry leaves pour half a liter of water and boil over low heat for a few minutes. Broth to drink as usual phytotea daily.
Of great importance is the rejection of harmful food: fried, spicy, fatty, salty foods, a large amount of coffee. Alcoholic drinks from time to time is not prohibited, but in minimal quantities.
It is useful to periodically massage the neck and head. Well helps to improve blood circulation in the brain by combing hair with a massage brush.
In order not to take vasodilators, it is necessary to engage in the prevention of cerebral vascular pathologies in advance. These diseases are dangerous because at the initial stage of development they practically do not manifest themselves. Consequently, to respond to them in a timely manner is almost impossible.