Vitamin B12 is one of the essential micronutrients for normal and complete human activity. Food enriched with this element should be present in the human diet daily. Examples of such foods include the following: liver (especially beef), mackerel, lamb, cod, shrimp, and so on. But, despite the high content of vitamin B12 in most of the products listed and the relatively low needs of the body in the microelement in question, in its natural form, if there are irregularities in the metabolic processes in the body, it can not be fully absorbed. It can also be triggered by viral, infectious and other diseases. For example, hepatitis. The solution to the problem of B12 deficiency is the use of vitamin Ampoules for injection, which will be given instructions for use.
Form release of vitamin B12
The international name of the drug is cyanocobalamin. Produced in most cases in ampoules with a volume of a substance in 1 ml. The concentration of the active substance per 1 ml of liquid is 200 or 500 μg. The standard package contains 10 ampoules.
Pharmacological action of vitamin b12
Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) has a metabolic effect on cells and a hematopoietic property; it belongs to the pharmacological group of vitamins and vitamin-like drugs. The main conversion of the B12 microelement into active forms (cobamamide) occurs mainly in the liver. Kobamamid has a pronounced ability to stimulate tissue regeneration and red blood cell renewal. Strengthens and optimizes the absorption of iron.
Indications for use of vitamin B12
- Anemia. The use of vitamin B12 in the treatment of this type of disease has been known since the 40s of the last century. Its first laboratory derivatives were developed to combat anemia. Vitamin B12 is used in the treatment of chronic anemia and as maintenance therapy after the subacute anemia.
- Chronic forms of hepatitis of all stages. In the treatment of hepatitis A, B, C vitamin B12 is used as the main drug.
- Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic forms of liver failure. Vitamin B12 facilitates the course of the disease and contributes to the accelerated regeneration of damaged tissues due to the accelerated metabolism of cells.
- Alcoholism. Application due to the need for maintenance and rehabilitation therapy.
- Various forms of neuralgia. The drug found the greatest positive use in treating neuralgia of the ternary nerve.
- Diseases of the central nervous system manifested by mental disorders: neurotic states, depression and so on.
- Peripheral nervous system diseases: injuries and atrophies of peripheral nerves, amyotrophic sclerosis, and so on.
- Cerebral palsy.
- Down syndrome.
- Dermatological diseases associated with impaired cell regeneration of the epidermis: psoriasis, eczema, photodermatosis, and so on.
- Radiation damage of tissues.
- As a supportive and immunomodulatory therapy for the protracted course of infectious and viral diseases.
- The use of drugs of high toxicity.
- The use of ascorbic acid preparations to enhance the degree of absorption and minimize the irritation of the intestines.
- Pathological diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, caused by a violation of the absorption of vitamin B12, in particular the ileal dysfunction and a pronounced deficiency of the factor Castle.
- Long strict diet.
Contraindications, side effects and overdose
The main contraindications include the following:
- Hypersensitivity to the drug vitamin B12.
- Angina and acute heart failure.
- Predisposition to cancer and the presence of malignant tumors. Due to the fact that the use of drugs B12 contribute to the accelerated growth of all types of cells, including cancer.
Among the side effects that occur most often are the following:
- Urticaria and other rash and allergic reactions.
- State of excitement and difficulty falling asleep.
- Dizziness and weakness.
Overdose is extremely rare, even with the introduction of the drug B12 in high dosage. The main symptoms of overdose:
- Reversible pulmonary edema.
- The manifestation of acute heart failure.
- Thrombosis noted in peripheral vessels.
It should be noted that it is not allowed to combine the solution of the B12 preparation in one syringe for injections with the preparations of bromide and riboflavin.
The dose is calculated based on the age and individual characteristics of the patient:
- Vitamin B12 at the age of six months –
The considered dosage is the natural daily norm for an average person who does not have a specific disease associated with B12 deficiency. Dosage for major diseases and instructions for use will be indicated in the next section.
Cyanocobalamin treatment regimen
Numerous experiments with the preparation in question have shown the inexpediency of oral administration of vitamin B12 due to its poor digestibility in this way. In this regard, in medical practice, injections are used subcutaneously, intramuscularly or intravenously. In rare cases, the drug is administered intralyumbalno. Below is the instruction of treatment and prevention of the most common diseases associated with B12 deficiency or diseases in which the absorption of the vitamin is complicated by one or other factors.
Anemia of various etiologies
- Depending on the severity of the course of the disease, injections are prescribed in a dose of from 100 to 500 μg daily for 7 to 12 days before the onset of visible remission.
- Additionally prescribed folic acid intake.
- In the future, a course of maintenance therapy with a dose of 200 mg once a week for 3-6 months is carried out at a time.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system
- Vitamin B12 injections are prescribed as follows: 1-3 days of treatment — 200 mcg daily; 4 – 7 day – 300 mcg daily. In case of uncomplicated diseases, the therapy stops there. Otherwise, continue as follows: 8–12 day – 400 mcg daily; 13 – 15 day – 500 mcg daily.
- In the future, for 7–15 days, they continue the course of maintenance therapy with 100 µg daily or every other day.
- For diseases of the central nervous system and PNS, complicated by injuries or pinched nerves, the initial treatment regimen for 15 days is repeated three times.
General treatment regimen
- The course of treatment or prevention from 7 to 15 days.
- Injections are administered at a dose of 200-500 mcg per day.
When treating children, the dose is reduced in proportion to the daily need from the above scheme.
This manual is for guidance only and may be used only after consulting a doctor.