The echogenicity of the parenchyma of a healthy pancreas on ultrasound is similar to the echogenicity of the liver and spleen. In its structure, iron has a head, body and tail of optimal size. Unfortunately, people who already have problems are turning to specialists, and the signs of diffuse changes in the pancreas due to its inflammation or other pathology are often observed on the monitors of diagnostic devices.
The term diffusion in Latin means spreading or interaction. From the point of view of physics and chemistry, this is the penetration and interaction of atoms or molecules of one substance with atoms and molecules of another. Studying the phenomenon of diffusion, scientists began to better understand the essence of the processes occurring in the human body. This most often differs pancreas. Diffuse changes – what is it?
You can watch this phenomenon easily. It is enough to add some ink to a glass of water and see how the substances are mixed. In anatomy, this phenomenon is associated with the interaction and replacement of some cells by others. This is what is found in the ultrasound: the altered cells are located next to healthy ones. Signs of diffuse changes in the pancreas are usually local (focal) or mixed (diffuse) in nature.
What are the diffuse changes in the pancreatic parenchyma?
Pathogenic changes in gland tissue are most often chronic, and therefore there are no symptoms. But on ultrasound in normal gland size, the echo is increased. Elderly patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, gradually die healthy cells, they are replaced by connective or adipose tissue.
Also, such transformations are observed in violation of the blood supply of the enzyme-forming organ, the liver, in the disruption of the functioning of the biliary tract, in the violation of the endocrine and metabolic processes. In what other cases do diffuse changes in the liver and pancreas occur?
Similar symptoms are observed in cases of pancreatitis or dystrophic metabolic disturbances. The diagnosis of pancreatitis may not be confirmed, and then the treatment is not prescribed, and the patient does not recognize DIPZH. As a rule, spreading changes occur in the glandular tissue. In the chronic course of disease, pathogenic changes in tissues are almost asymptomatic. These are mild diffuse changes in the pancreas.
The disease can be triggered by various reasons:
1) imbalance in nutrition. Abuse of fatty, flour, salty, sweet and spicy foods.
2) Genetic Predisposition.
3) Stress and nervous strain.
4) Drug and alcohol addiction.
5) Chronic diseases of the digestive system.
6) Self-medication and unsystematic use of drugs.
How to treat diffuse changes in the pancreas? Consider this below.
Insufficient amount of insulin in the blood and the detection of glucose in the urine are also provoked by DIPS. As a rule, the cause of these changes is pancreatitis, which should be treated. It is necessary and compliance with certain rules of patient behavior, diet.
The main signs of diffuse changes in the pancreas
As a rule, signs of DI are associated with the underlying disease. Most often, patients complain that they feel heavy in the stomach, they suffer from frequent diarrhea or, conversely, constipation. In acute pancreatitis, pressure in the pancreatic duct often rises, which can cause its deformation. Due to a violation of the enzymatic function, part of the digestive enzymes can pass through the cells of the pancreatic parenchyma and cause poisoning of the body. In this case, the patient experiences pain on the left under the sternum, nausea, often accompanied by vomiting. Observed rapid pulse and low blood pressure. This condition usually requires hospitalization.
The initial stage of chronic pancreatitis is precipitated by the appearance of edema and hemorrhage in the gland tissues. Then atrophy occurs, the gland decreases in size, connective tissue grows, and the enzyme-forming cells stop producing digestive enzymes. Fibrosis is also accompanied by the displacement of healthy prostate cells and their replacement with connective tissue. The production of hormones and enzymes stops. At the initial stage, the symptoms are scarce and often similar to signs of inflammation of the pancreas. There are moderate diffuse changes in the pancreas.
Replacing normal organ cells with fatty tissue is called lipomatosis. Symptomatology DIPZH with lipomatosis depends on its volume. With minor changes, DI pathology may not declare itself, but in more serious cases, the body gradually begins to experience a deficiency of hormones and enzymes. The proliferation of lipoid tissue leads to contraction of the parenchyma and, as a consequence, the disruption of the functioning of the pancreas and the appearance of pain. These are diffuse changes of the pancreas by the type of lipomatosis.
Hollow organs include the stomach, urinary bladder and gallbladder. Organs consisting of parenchyma (glandular tissue): pancreas, spleen, liver, etc. The main function of the pancreatic parenchyma is the production of enzymes and hormones.
In diabetes, chronic pancreatitis, or acute pancreatitis, there are often changes.
On ultrasound, there is an increase in the echogenicity of the glandular tissue, this is due to the inflammatory process even when the connective tissue becomes coarsen (fibrosis), which leads to an increase in density. The reason for this anomaly is an imbalance in metabolism. Another reason for the increase in echogenicity is lymphomatosis (replacement of the parenchyma with fat cells).
Swelling of the gland can occur due to pancreatitis, due to which the density of the parenchyma changes and, as a result, the echogenic reaction changes too.
How do diffuse changes in the parenchyma of the liver and pancreas affect organs?
The structure of the parenchyma can be homogeneous and fine-grained. Slightly increased grain is also not a big deviation. In the aggregate, an increase in graininess indicates the existing inflammation and dystrophic changes in the gland associated with improper nutrition.
A healthy parenchyma of the pancreas resembles the echostructure of the liver, the same uniform and fine-grained. Age-related changes in the echogenicity of the gland structure indicate a developing lipomatosis, which is often associated with the onset of diabetes. Signs of diffuse changes in the pancreas can be very informative.
These are its secondary changes, the response to the pathology in the adjacent digestive organs, which are closely related to it. Particularly often, DI glands are caused by problems with the liver and biliary tract, as it most closely interacts with these organs. With ultrasound, reactive echoal signs of diffuse changes in the pancreas are reminiscent of acute pancreatitis, since they are most often a secondary consequence of the pancreas.
Fibrous CIs are a scar in the gland of connective tissue that spreads through the cells of the tissue. The reasons for this process are often:
1) Metabolic disorders.
2) Alcohol poisoning.
3) Viral lesions.
4) Inflammatory processes.
Moreover, the lesions caused by viruses relate to the entire hepatobiliary system, and not just one pancreas. On ultrasound diffuse changes of the pancreas have a high echogenicity and density. The presence of diffuse fibrotic changes may indicate an existing benign tumor of the glandular tissue – fibroma, the proliferation of which can squeeze the gland and cause pain.
Depending on the location of the fibroma, different symptoms will be present. For example, when it is found in the head of the pancreas, the flow of the duct is clamped, and a jaundice symptom occurs. If the tumor is pressing on the duodenum, nausea, vomiting and other symptoms occur that require differentiation from intestinal obstruction. What else are echo signs of diffuse changes in the pancreas?
Healthy glandular cells are replaced with fatty tissues that are unable to perform the enzymatic function of the pancreas, which leads to gland hypofunction. For lipodystrophy, which occupies less than half the volume of the entire gland, mixed drug therapy is used in conjunction with a diet. If the lesion covers more than half of the organ and its work is impaired, surgical intervention is indicated. Diffuse changes in the liver parenchyma and pancreas in some cases are life-threatening.
In the structure of this secretory organ, three elements are distinguished: the body, the head, and the tail, which has a pear-shaped shape and is adjacent to the spleen. Normally, it is 2–3 cm wide. The excretory duct, approximately 15 cm long, passes through the entire gland. Blocking of the hepatic vein can lead to DI of the pancreas tail, the symptoms of which are that this part is compacted.
About a quarter of all pancreatic diseases are associated with diffuse tail changes. In the case of minor lesions of the tail, treat with conservative methods. In the case of deep lesions, removal of the tail is indicated, followed by overlapping of the blood vessels.
How are diffuse changes in the liver and pancreas detected?
Determined DIPZH through ultrasound. An ultrasound reveals that the density and structure of the tissue changes, and foci of inflammation are determined.
But for the diagnosis is not enough. To confirm the CI, a biochemical blood test, endoscopy of the gland is performed It is very important to correctly collect the patient’s history (a survey of complaints), as well as to conduct additional instrumental examinations and palpation.
The overall picture is complemented by a general analysis of blood, urine, endoscopy of the gastrointestinal organs, coprogram, etc. Pancreatic enzymes and blood glucose, as well as an inhibitor to trypsin, play an important role.
With the help of ultrasound, the size of the gland and its ducts are determined, and tumors and compaction are detected. To clarify the diagnosis, the following are shown: computed tomography and ERCP that allow more precise identification of the causes of changes in the enzyme-forming organ. Most clearly manifest diffuse changes of the pancreas by type of lipomatosis.
The process of development of CI in the pancreas, liver and other organs can be slowed down. Here are some rules:
1) You must completely give up alcohol.
2) Follow a diet, take food in small portions, but often.
3) Minimize the consumption of fatty foods.
4) Refuse canned foods.
5) Eat fresh juices and drink herbal teas.
Do not give up if you are diagnosed with DIPZH. You just have to go through the necessary research and in the future listen carefully to your body, monitor the health of such important organs as the liver and pancreas. Diffuse changes, what is it and what are the methods of treatment, we discussed in the article.