The incidence of diaper dermatitis has increased since the invention of diapers. This fact is proved by medical research, and the point here is not in the bad qualities of diapers, but mainly in the absence of basic knowledge in its use.
Diaper dermatitis is an irritation of the skin, expressed in the appearance of hyperemia, moist spots, rashes. The causes of the disease are commonplace factors, among which in the first place are:
- Improper use of diapers;
- Chemical irritants contained in urine and feces (contact dt);
Some children show a congenital susceptibility to the occurrence of dermatitis, especially AD. This pattern is detected in babies whose parents suffer from allergic diseases. Also, they may have an allergic dt. The peak of registration of diaper dermatitis occurs at the age of a child from 6 months to a year, that is, at a time when the baby becomes more mobile and its diet begins to be enriched with new foods.
Proper use of diapers does not harm the child, moreover, it is convenient for the baby himself and his mother. Pampers should change at least once every 4 hours; otherwise, in a tight space, the baby’s skin begins to get wet, under the action of moisture and in the absence of air in the baby, and skin irritation occurs.
A baby should not wear diapers all day, the ideal option is to use them during walks and at night. A quality diaper should absorb all the liquid, leaving no moisture on the surface, and its dimensions should fully fit the body of the baby.
A slight redness on the buttocks, in the inguinal folds, around the child’s genitals by a pediatrician is already defined as diaper dermatitis. In the future, the punctate rash, the appearance of weeping spots can join the first symptoms.
A small child reacts severely to the slightest irritation of the skin, becomes capricious, lethargic, refuses to eat, breaks sleep at night. Inflammation increases in those places where the skin is constantly in contact with urine and feces components.
The simultaneous effects of urine and feces multiply the inflammation of irritated skin, there are large on the area of the rash, swelling. Symptoms of the disease increase in warm and dry weather, as the urine becomes concentrated, and therefore, in a small amount of it there is a large accumulation of ammonia and other caustic compounds.
In weakened by diseases or premature babies, the barrier functions of the skin do not function enough and therefore the negative influence of pathogenic microorganisms – fungi, bacteria can join the usual skin irritation.
When exposed to yeast-like fungi, a condition such as candidal diaper dermatitis develops. When attaching to the flow of diaper dermatitis of the fungus, the skin condition continues to deteriorate, there is severe swelling, excessive redness of the skin of the body, skin irritation goes to the thighs, covers the entire surface of the buttocks and genitals.
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The diagnosis of candidal diaper dermatitis is made if the usual diaper rash does not go away within three days if the right care is taken. Candida dermatitis may also occur after the treatment of other diseases with antibiotics.
Diaper dermatitis includes various conditions of the skin and therefore has a classification:
- Rubbing – the skin turns red in those parts of the body where there is the greatest contact with the diaper, diapers or sliders. This type of dermatitis proceeds easily and is eliminated independently after the exclusion of the cause.
- Edge dermatitis – reddening of the skin appears in those places where the skin of the child is in contact with the rubber of diapers, on the hips.
- Perianal dermatitis – redness of the skin folds around the anus. Occurs predominantly in babies who are bottle-fed. The mixtures used by the child increase the acidity of the feces, which is an irritant to the skin.
- Atopic dermatitis is accompanied by severe itching and irritation of the skin. Symptoms of the disease are determined on the face, the arms of the child, the neck. This form of dermatitis is typical for children older than six months – it is at this time that children begin to try new, sometimes allergenic foods for them.
- Seborrheic dermatitis. In addition to redness and rash in the groin area of the child, plaques appear, covered with a fat yellowish crust, on the head and torso.
- Candida dermatitis develops in debilitated children and after antibiotic treatment. In the groin and on the buttocks appear bright – red rash, sometimes abscesses.
- Impetigo occurs under the influence of staphylococci and streptococci on inflamed skin. The clinical picture is displayed by the appearance of blisters of various shapes, on which a brownish crust appears after opening. Rashes can spread to the hips, abdomen, back.
May be relevant in adults
Although diaper dermatitis is predominantly a childhood disease, cases of its occurrence in adults are recorded. For the most part they are lying patients who do not control urination and bowel movements. The urine of adults contains a greater amount of excreted decay products; therefore, they develop signs of dermatitis with the slightest retention of biological fluid on the skin. In most cases, the treating patients are the elderly with reduced regeneration of the skin, this feature of the body also affects the rapid onset of dermatitis.
Inflammation of the skin in adult patients is expressed in its irritation, the appearance of red spots, dryness, flaking. Skin irritation may increase if the patient takes enzymes to treat diseases of the digestive system. Diaper dermatitis in adults predisposes to the development of pressure sores, which are difficult to treat, and their infection can lead to serious complications.
Principles of treatment
Already at the first onset of symptoms, parents need to know how to treat diaper dermatitis. The delay of the process can lead to the accession of a secondary infection and to extensive skin lesions with the inclusion in the pathological process not only of the upper layer of the epidermis, but also of deep layers.
The skin of a baby in the first years of his life is quite gentle and does not have such barrier properties as an adult, so the slightest inflammation can cause considerable suffering to your child.
Treatment for diaper dermatitis is proper skin care. It is necessary to change wet diapers, diapers.
After the appearance of irritation, it is necessary to maximize the contact of the baby’s bare skin with air, that is, the baby should spend most of the day naked. Try to do without drugs, because the main method of treatment in this case is air baths.
To help reduce skin irritation, bathing in a series of decoctions, a solution of weak potassium permanganate will help. In the event of diaper rash appeared after the new feeding, you need to temporarily exclude it from the diet.
The doctor may recommend the use of anti-inflammatory creams and ointments, possibly emollient. Bepantin, D-Panthenol, Zindol, ointments with lanolin have a good effect, they are applied only to the previously washed and dried skin of a child.
Baneocin powder is applied to skin irritation when a secondary infection is added – this can be done only on the recommendation of a doctor,
If a bacterial infection is suspected, a pediatrician may prescribe a bacteriological culture for a pathogen, dysbacteriosis, or a blood test. The principles of treatment of dermatitis in adults are similar to the treatment of disease in children.
Diaper dermatitis with a severe course gives a lot of suffering to the child, so parents should take all measures to prevent the disease. Basic preventive measures are quite simple and anyone can stick to them.
- Proper use and selection of diapers. When buying, you need to choose models that are well breathable. Pampers should sit perfectly on the body of the child, that is, should not crush and subside.
- Use wet wipes to wipe the skin during walks, in conditions where the baby can not be washed in water. Napkins need to choose precisely children, and when a rash occurs, change the brand on them.
- The diaper changes after each bowel movement and at least every 4 hours. After removing the baby’s diapers, it is necessary to soak and treat the fold and skin in the groin area with a protective baby cream.
- Use cream with strong fragrances for the treatment of the skin of the child can not.
- Baby should take air baths every day.
Preventive measures and constant skin care will prevent not only diaper rash, but also other more serious skin problems.
Hello, help advice please. Baby two months, a few days ago, switched to other diapers, cheaper, after the pope appeared diaper dermatitis. I wash away the train and potassium permanganate, when I wash away I am crying a lot, I became very capricious. What other effective and safe means can you take?
First, you should change the diapers back, or go to the usual diaper, at least for a while. At this age, almost everything is forbidden, and any medicine will not get rid of the causes and allergies can progress further.