Vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Daily need
2,3-dehydro-L-gulonic acid g-lactone
Ascorbic acid is a white crystals, soluble in water and having a taste of lemon juice. This “mild” acid is found in four different forms, the so-called stereoisomers. Moreover, its atomic composition is always the same, just the molecule has a different spatial construction. This gives the vitamin the opportunity in each case to perform various functions in the process of metabolism, making it extremely versatile.
Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant. It plays an important role in the regulation of redox processes, is involved in the synthesis of collagen and procollagen, the metabolism of folic acid and iron, as well as the synthesis of steroid hormones and catecholamines. Ascorbic acid also regulates blood clotting, normalizes capillary permeability, is necessary for blood formation, has anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effect.
Vitamin C is a factor in protecting the body from the effects of stress. Strengthens reparative processes, increases resistance to infections. Reduces the effects of exposure to various allergens. There are many theoretical and experimental prerequisites for the use of vitamin C for the prevention of cancer. It is known that in cancer patients, due to the depletion of its reserves in the tissues, symptoms of vitamin deficiency often develop, which requires additional administration.
Vitamin C improves the body’s ability to absorb calcium and iron, remove toxic copper, lead and mercury.
It is important that in the presence of an adequate amount of vitamin C, the stability of vitamins B1, B2, A, E, pantothenic and folic acids significantly increases. Vitamin C protects low-density lipoprotein cholesterol from oxidation and, accordingly, the walls of blood vessels from the deposition of oxidized forms of cholesterol.
This amazing substance instantly enters the bloodstream, into the cells of the body, as well as into the extracellular space. It reaches its highest concentration in the central nervous system and in the adrenal cortex. This vitamin converts amino acids into so-called biogenic amines, that is, into biologically active forms of protein. Vitamin C is also high in white blood cells, white blood cells, which play an important role in the immune system.
History of discovery and study of vitamin C
The history of the discovery of vitamin C is associated with scurvy. In those days, this disease particularly affected the navigators. Strong, brave sailors were powerless before scurvy, which, moreover, often led to death. The disease manifested itself as general weakness, bleeding gums, as a result of which teeth fell out, a rash appeared, and hemorrhages on the skin. But still a cure was found. So, the sailors, following the example of the Indians, began to drink water extract of pine needles, which is a storehouse of vitamin C. In the XVIII century, the surgeon of the British fleet J. Lind showed that the sailors’ disease can be cured by adding fresh vegetables and fruits to their diet. Another fact is interesting: Albert von St. Dyerd, the discoverer of vitamin C, actually discovered a whole complex of vitamins and showed that with the routine and bioflavonoids, the action of vitamin C becomes especially powerful.
According to the famous author of the Atkinson diet, Dr. Robert Atkinson: “Vitamin C is so crucial to our health that I don’t even remember a disease in which the intake of this vitamin will not lead to any improvement. then a cold or cancer, hypertension or asthma, in all cases we can recommend taking this vitamin. .
A huge merit in the study of its properties belongs to Linus Pauling. Linus Karl Pauling is one of the few scientists who twice in his life has been honored with the highest global assessment of his service to humanity – the Nobel Prize. Linus Pauling is one of the founders of modern chemistry and molecular biology.
Daily need for vitamin C
The daily human need for vitamin C depends on a number of reasons: age, sex, work performed, state of pregnancy or breastfeeding, climatic conditions, bad habits.
Diseases, stress, fever and exposure to toxic effects (such as cigarette smoke) increase the need for vitamin C.
In a hot climate and in the Far North, the need for vitamin C increases by 30-50 percent. The young body absorbs vitamin C better than the elderly, so in the elderly, the need for vitamin C increases slightly.
It is proved that contraceptives (oral contraceptives) lower the level of vitamin C in the blood and increase the daily need for it.
The average rate of physiological needs is 60-100 mg per day. The usual therapeutic dose is 500-1500 mg daily.
Daily need for Vitamin C depending on age:
0-6 months – 30 mg 6 months up to a year – 35 mg 1-3 years – 40 mg 4-6 years – 45 mg 7-10 years – 45 mg 11-14 years – 50 mg For men and women from 15 years and up to 50 daily need about 60 mg. During pregnancy – 70 mg During lactation – 95 mg
But modern American biochemists strongly advise to increase the recommended doses by at least five times, because each cigarette steals up to 30 milligrams of vitamin C from us, each flash of emotions (jealousy, despair, aggression) costs us up to 300 milligrams of ascorbine for 20 minutes acid. This should include such vitamin-destructive factors as poor nutrition, poor absorption of vitamin in the gastrointestinal tract and free radicals. All this causes a significant increase in vitamin intake.
It is better to divide the daily dose of vitamin C into several parts. The body quickly consumes vitamin C as soon as it is received. It is much more beneficial to maintain a constantly high vitamin concentration, which is easy to achieve by dividing the total daily dose into several smaller doses taken throughout the day.
It is recommended to increase and decrease the dose of vitamin C gradually. Do not shock your body with the sudden intake of large amounts of vitamin C.
When pregnancy is not recommended to take too high doses of vitamin C, since the fetus may be addicted.
The depth of this deficiency increases in the winter-spring period, but for many children, insufficient supply of vitamins persists even in more favorable summer and autumn months.
According to Russian researchers, a shortage of ascorbic acid in schoolchildren reduces the leukocyte’s ability to destroy pathogenic microbes in the body 2 times, resulting in an increase in the incidence of acute respiratory diseases by 26–40%, and vice versa, the intake of vitamins significantly reduces the rate of ARD.
Deficiency can be exogenous (due to a lack of ascorbic acid in food) and endogenous (due to a violation of absorbability and absorption of vitamin C in the human body).
• bleeding gums • tooth loss • ease of bruising • poor wound healing • lethargy • hair loss • dry skin • irritability • general pain • joint pain • discomfort • depression
What is vitamin C for?
– immune functions of the body; – immune functions of the body; – strength of vessels and tissues; – stable nervous system; – healthy gums; – fat absorption; – clean smooth skin; – elastic hair; – visual acuity; – good mood; – concentration of attention; – sound, healthy sleep; – stress management