With some problems in physical condition, people can live for quite a long time and not guess about them. One of these problems is a cyst in the nose.
Pathological formation containing fluid, can develop in the sinuses, but does not manifest itself. Similar phenomena occur in various organs and tissues of the body, including in the paranasal sinuses. Such a diagnosis is detected in 10% of people, but it often happens by chance during examination for some other reason. Although a cyst in the nose for a long time does not interfere with the life of the patient, timely treatment of it is necessary so that possible dangerous consequences do not occur.
In the paranasal sinuses on the mucous membrane are special glands that produce mucus, required for moisturizing the nasal cavity. Each gland has separate ducts to bring its secret to the mucosal surface. If these ducts are completely or partially clogged, then mucus can accumulate in the paranasal sinuses. As the gland continues to work, and there is no place for mucus to exit, the walls of the gland expand under pressure, and a cyst is formed.
The ducts located in the sinuses of the nose can be blocked for various reasons:
- frequent allergic reactions of the body,
- chronic diseases developing in the nasal cavity (rhinitis) or in its paranasal sinuses (sinusitis: antritis, sinusitis, and
Varieties of the disease
All cystic formations can be divided into true and false:
- True or retention cysts occur for the above reason – blockage of the ducts of the glands in the paranasal sinuses. Their peculiarity is that they are lined with mucous cells.
- False or pseudocysts in the paranasal sinuses arise for some specific reasons: exposure to an allergen, inflammatory processes in the upper jaw teeth, infectious diseases. In this case, there is no certainty that the tumor is exactly a cyst. Often, treatment of the cause of the disease helps to get rid of the false cyst.
Cysts are also divided by the fluid they contain. In the classification of isolated:
For a long time, the symptoms of the disease may be absent, so some people throughout their lives are not aware of their problems. You can notice the symptoms that appear only if the cyst began to grow rapidly and cover the sinus. Only then does a person begin diagnosis and treatment. In most situations, a cyst is found by chance with other radiological examinations.
There are the following symptoms, which may indicate the presence of a cyst in the sinuses:
- nasal congestion,
- pains in the forehead, upper jaw and infraorbital region,
- there may be viscous and mucous discharge, which may come from the nose or flow down the back of the throat.
Those who are engaged in underwater swimming, note that all signs of a cyst are particularly evident at depth. Severe pain in this case is due to pressure drops. Similar sensations occur in ordinary people with sharp head tilts forward.
Most often, a cyst forms in the maxillary sinuses, although it can be observed in the frontal sinuses, in the ethmoid labyrinth, and in the sphenoid sinus. Symptoms are exactly the same in case of a neoplasm on the left and on the right side.
Symptoms are often reminiscent of sinusitis if pus is produced in response to the accumulation of pathogenic bacteria in the paranasal sinuses.
Not necessarily the above symptoms indicate the presence of cysts. In any case, prescribe additional diagnostic procedures. Even after X-ray examination, it is impossible to accurately judge the diagnosis.
Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are considered the most accurate diagnostic methods. These methods can not only show the size of the tumor, but also its location in the sinus.
To confirm the diagnosis, a biopsy can be prescribed, when cyst tissue is partially cut off for laboratory testing, and a sinus test, in which a contrast fluid is injected at the location of the intended cyst.
Treatment of a cyst in the nose involves surgery. This disease is not treated with pills or other drugs, surgical removal of the neoplasm is always necessary. After the diagnosis, the operation may not be carried out in those cases if the neoplasm does not increase in size and does not cause inconvenience to the patient.
Removal of a cyst in the maxillary sinus (this is the most common option) can be done in several ways:
- Ordinary surgery. The classic technique is called the Caldwell-Luc operation. Under local or general anesthesia, an incision is made under the upper lip, the anterior part of the sinus wall is opened and a cyst is removed with surgical instruments. This treatment is very traumatic. A long period of rehabilitation is required, and full restoration of the exposed wall of the sinus does not occur. The hole is overgrown not with bone tissue, as it was before, but with scars. Because of this, the normal functioning of the mucous membrane in the damaged sinus is disturbed, which provokes the frequent occurrence of sinusitis or rhinitis.
- Removal by laser. Laser treatment is usually perceived by people as the most modern, and therefore painless and effective. But in the case of a cyst in the maxillary sinus, this opinion is wrong. The main problem here is the access of laser radiation to the desired object. To do this, it is necessary to penetrate the sinus and provide access to the surgical laser, respectively, it is necessary to open the sinus wall, as in the previous method. Because of these points, laser surgery is not the most optimal treatment for a cyst.
- Endoscopic surgery. The most optimal is this type of operation, since access to the cyst is carried out through the natural openings in the sinuses, with which they communicate with the nasal cavity. The doctor inserts special devices into the sinus with which the cyst is removed, and the whole process is controlled by him on the monitor. This treatment has several advantages: there is no problem of trauma, no scars remain, the duration of rehabilitation is reduced. Sinuses after operation again begin to function normally.
Treatment of folk remedies in the presence of a cyst is not only unpromising, but even dangerous. Since one of the causes of the appearance of a cystic tumor can be an allergy, most folk remedies (herbal decoctions and infusions, honey, essential oils) can provoke an increase in it. In any case, treatment should be carried out under the supervision of a physician so that serious consequences do not appear. It must be remembered that with the prolonged proliferation of a cyst, its pressure on the organs of the head increases, and then it may even burst, after which the pus spreads to the tissues and there is a threat of their necrosis. Treatment of a cyst will be successful if you immediately see a specialist after the symptoms are detected.
How is the operation to remove a cyst can be seen in the following video: