The excess of the gallbladder is a fairly common pathological condition in which the natural anatomical shape of an organ is disrupted, which leads to disruption of its functions, decreased motility of the biliary tract, bile stasis and other adverse effects.
The gallbladder is an important participant in proper digestion, because the released bile is necessary for the processing and assimilation of nutrients from food. When these processes are disturbed, and the free flow of bile is impeded, the digestive processes are lost, the fats are broken up incorrectly and all the conditions for the formation of gallstones arise. We learn more about what is the inflection of the gallbladder in adults, how the disease manifests itself and what methods are treated.
Inflection of the gallbladder – the causes of pathology
In medicine, there is a hereditary and acquired bend of the gallbladder. Congenital abnormalities form at about 5-6 weeks of pregnancy. In the process of prenatal development of the embryo, the organs and systems are actively laid and simultaneously with the liver and bile ducts, the gallbladder appears. If at this time the mother’s body falls under the influence of adverse factors, the formation of the biliary system fails and the risk of congenital anatomical pathology of the gall bladder increases. These negative effects include:
- exacerbation of chronic diseases in the mother;
- viral infections transmitted during this period;
- medication (up to 12 weeks);
- drinking alcohol, smoking;
- unfavorable ecological environment.
Most often, with this form of the disease, the bend retains its original localization, therefore it is called persistent (fixed). But sometimes there is an increased mobility of the muscle walls of the body, as a result of which the deformation can change its shape. In this case, mobile or labile bending of the gallbladder is diagnosed.
Acquired form of inflection is most often formed in adults under the influence of the following factors:
- inflammatory process in the gallbladder (cholecystitis, pericholecystitis) and pancreas (pancreatitis);
- sharp weight lifting;
- hypodynamia, long stay in a motionless, sitting position;
- the formation of gallstones (gallstone disease);
- omission of internal organs caused by river weight loss in severe illness or strict diets;
- obesity, impaired metabolic processes;
- liver diseases (hepatitis, hepatosis, cirrhosis) leading to an increase in its size;
- violation of the diet when the fasting period is replaced by overeating;
- the use of fatty, spicy foods, smoked meats and other harmful products;
In addition, physicians classify pathology according to the location of the abnormality, since the bend can be located in the area of the body, bottom or neck of the gallbladder.
Types of disease
To understand how the bend is formed, it is worth considering the anatomical structure of the gallbladder. A healthy organ has a pear shape and consists of three parts (neck, body and bottom). The possibility of deformation of the bubble due to its structure. Inside this organ is hollow, and its walls consist of a muscular membrane, which provokes its mobility.
The forms taken by the gallbladder in the process of deformation can be very diverse. Pathology is usually detected by ultrasound, and on the monitor screen you can see a bend in the form of a hook, an arc, an hourglass or even a double bend (S-shaped), which becomes the main cause of biliary dyskinesia.
The most dangerous consequences occur in the inflection of the body of the gallbladder. At the same time, symptoms that require emergency medical care or surgery. But most often, doctors diagnose a break in the neck of the gallbladder, which is also a dangerous condition, because over time the neck can completely deaden, and the bile, penetrating into the abdominal cavity, will trigger the development of biliary peritonitis.
The bend of the gallbladder is often diagnosed in the last stages of pregnancy, as the uterus, which has acquired large sizes, begins to put pressure on the liver, gallbladder and disrupts the process of secretion of bile.
When the gallbladder is deformed, the course of the pathology is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- abdominal distention, feeling of heaviness in the stomach after eating:
- pain in the right hypochondrium and epistragy;
- heartburn, belching air;
- bouts of nausea, vomiting;
- indigestion, upset stool (constipation or diarrhea);
- lack of appetite;
- smack in the mouth;
- excessive sweating, feverish state.
At the doctor’s appointment, patients complain of dull, arching pains in the right side, which can be very strong and given to the right scapula, spine or collarbone.
The nature of the symptoms depends largely on the type of inflection of the gallbladder in an adult. If the deformity of the bladder occurred along the longitudinal axis, then the symptoms, as a rule, are mild.
With often diagnosed bend of the neck of the gallbladder, there is a sudden attack of acute pain in epistragy, the temperature rises. General weakness is aggravated by nausea and bouts of vomiting. The disease is acute and if you do not promptly seek medical help, the risk of bile entering the peritoneum increases.
If the constriction occurs between the body and the bottom of the gallbladder, there is a sharp pain in the right hypochondrium, which radiates to the scapula and spine. The patient complains of a lack of appetite, nausea, excessive sweating, weakness, the complexion turns gray or gives yellowness.
With repeated bending of the gallbladder, sharp pains appear, the blood circulation in the organ is disturbed, adhesions are formed, which contributes to the formation of gallstones and the development of gallstone disease. The disease in this case is severe and often requires surgical intervention. But such a deformation of the body in several places is rare.
There is also a temporary bend of the gallbladder, which occurs during weight lifting or intense training. As a rule, this form of the disease is asymptomatic, with time the defect disappears and the organ restores its former form.
The bend of the gallbladder leads to the fact that the body can not fully perform its function. Bile stagnates and conditions arise for the development of an inflammatory process (cholecystitis) or the formation of gallstones, which results in cholelithiasis. A dangerous complication is the displacement of the stone and blockage of the bile duct. This condition is a serious threat to life and health and requires immediate surgical intervention.
Congestion provokes digestive disorders, the lack of bile disrupts the process of splitting fats entering the body with food. As a result, the concentration of fatty acids increases, which prevents the utilization of glucose. And this is a direct path to the development of diabetes.
Bile helps excrete toxic decay products (for example, bilirubin). With a lack or absence of biological secretion, this process is disturbed, the concentration of bilirubin in the blood increases, the load on the liver increases, which causes jaundice symptoms.
Lipoproteins, not split up to the end, are quickly deposited in the body’s fat depot, and turn into extra pounds. This explains why a person can eat quite a bit, but at the same time suffer from obesity. Another danger is the violation of the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, K, D, E), which leads to vision problems, cardiovascular pathologies, deterioration of the skin and hair and accelerates the aging process.
Diagnostic method: MRI
The most informative method, which allows to obtain accurate information about the state of the organ, is considered to be ultrasound (ultrasound). Moreover, it is possible not only to visually see pathological changes, but also to evaluate which functions have been preserved, where the defect is located, and what is the condition of the neck, body and walls of the gall bladder.
To establish the nature of the disease and to clarify what kind of deformity is present (congenital or acquired), ultrasound is done twice. First, an organ is examined before the meal, which stimulates the secretion of bile, then after the meal. If the pathology is congenital, then the deformity of the organ will be unchanged.
Treatment of the gallbladder bend
A congenital form of kink does not need treatment; a person can live with her all her life without experiencing any unpleasant symptoms. Therapy of the acquired pathology consists in taking medication drugs, methods of physiotherapy, therapeutic gymnastics and following a specific, sparing diet.
Preparations for the treatment of the inflection of the gallbladder – it means with choleretic and antispasmodic effect. The doctor selects medications individually, taking into account the clinical picture of the disease, the severity of the symptoms and the general condition of the patient. We list the most popular choleretic in the inflection of the gallbladder:
- Gepabene – prescribed to eliminate stagnation, stimulate the outflow of bile, eliminate pain and maintain liver function.
- Allohol is a common and inexpensive choleretic preparation based on bile of cattle, garlic extracts and nettle. The drug enhances the production of bile by the liver cells and increases the motor function of the bile ducts.
- Flamin is an effective remedy based on plant flavonoids and glycosides, isolated from their immortelle. It shows anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, choleretic, analgesic and antispasmodic action.
- Odeston is a choleretic agent that not only accelerates the evacuation of bile, but also relieves the spasm of the biliary tract, eliminating pain. But this synthetic drug has a lot of contraindications and side effects.
- Hofitol is an artichoke-based phyto-medicine with choleretic and hepatoprotective effects. Helps relieve painful symptoms, eliminate congestion and protect the liver.
- Ursofalk and its analogues are used if stones form in the gallbladder. Drugs stimulate the flow of bile, break down bile stones and restore the gallbladder.
In addition, there is a wide range of medicines based on plant and synthetic components that can be used in violation of the functions of the gallbladder.
In addition to medicines, the doctor may prescribe herbal preparations with choleretic action (corn silk, yarrow, immortelle, mint, hawthorn). From them prepare broths and accept for a long time for the purpose of restoration of bile secretion. The optimal treatment regimen is selected by a specialist taking into account many factors, possible contraindications and the presence of concomitant diseases.
In case of inflection, therapeutic exercises will help not only prevent further deterioration of the condition, but also improve the functioning of the gallbladder. When the characteristic symptoms are recommended to perform the following exercises:
- Lying on your stomach, put your toes on the floor and extend your arms along the body. On the exhale, you must simultaneously lift the head, chest and arms and lower limbs (without bending at the knees). Without holding the breath, hold the pose for a few seconds, then return to the starting position as slowly as possible (as you exhale). Repeat 5 times.
- Lie on your back, throw your straight arms behind your head, press your lower back to the floor surface. On the exhale, raise the straight legs by 20 cm and hold for at least 5 seconds, then raise the legs even higher (50 cm) and also fix this position for 5 seconds. To ensure that breathing is not interrupted, as we exhale, we slowly lower our legs. It is enough to repeat 4 times.
- Taking the initial position, as in the first exercise, we do breathing exercises. After a deep breath, hold the air for 3 seconds, and then release it as slowly as possible, while straining the muscles of the abdominal cavity. Repeat 10 times.
It is best to conduct classes under the guidance of an experienced instructor and at the same time closely monitor their state of health.
To facilitate the condition of biliary colic, ultrasound therapy is used or electrophoresis with novocaine on the gallbladder area is used. In addition, on the recommendation of a doctor, you can make a tube based on Magnesia, Sorbitol and mineral water. This procedure will help clean the bladder from stagnant bile.
Diet at the bend of the gallbladder
Diet therapy for dysfunctions of the gallbladder is the basis for rapid recovery. Nutritionists advise to eat food often (every three hours) and in small portions, that is, adhere to the principles of fractional nutrition. When the bend prescribed therapeutic diet (table 5 A). Everything spicy, fried, fatty and salty, any spices and seasonings that irritate the gallbladder and increase inflammation are completely excluded from the diet. The following products are banned:
- fatty meats and fish;
- rich broths;
- offal, lard, smoked meat;
- sausages, canned foods;
- baked pastries and pastries (especially with cream);
- dairy products with high fat content (milk, sour cream, ryazhenka, cottage cheese, cheese, etc.);
- legumes (peas, beans, lentils);
- fish roe;
- spicy and fatty sauces;
- spices, seasonings;
- animal fats (especially butter);
- jam, honey, sugar, chocolate, cocoa, candy;
- strong black coffee and tea;
- sour fruits (citrus), grapes, dried fruits.
A complete ban applies to sweet soda, tonics and alcoholic beverages. When cooking, use as little salt as possible. It is best to slightly add salt to already prepared dishes. Frying, as a heat treatment method, should be eliminated and preference should be given to boiling, stewing, steaming or baking.
The list of approved products include:
- dietary meats (chicken, veal);
- lean fish, seafood;
- lean soups;
- fresh vegetables and salads from them with vegetable oil;
- sweet fruit;
- cereals (buckwheat, barley, oatmeal, millet, rice);
- low-fat cottage cheese, kefir or yogurt;
- vegetable side dishes.
It is recommended to drink more liquid, preferably ordinary purified water or mineral water without gas. Juices from packages, soda, fruit drinks, dried fruit compote should not be included in the menu. Try to eat in small portions (5-6 times a day) and always in the form of heat. Follow all recommendations of the attending physician and you will soon feel relief.
The prognosis of the disease in most cases is favorable. An increase in motor activity, feasible physical exertion, proper nutrition, and taking medications prescribed by a doctor will soon give results and help avoid complications such as biliary dyskinesia and chronic cholecystitis.
Severe consequences can be observed only in one case – in the formation of gallstones. Danger arises when they begin to move and fall into the duct, completely blocking the outflow of bile, which threatens to rupture the gallbladder wall. In this case, the patient needs urgent medical care and surgery to remove the organ.