Having appeared in favorable conditions (optimum thermal mode, environment, humidity, availability of food addictions), all microorganisms begin to grow and multiply. This is a law of nature. If such processes occur in the human body, a disease or some pathology develops under the influence of a change in microflora. To determine the pathogen, its quantity, type, and how it reacts to medications, you can, making backspace on the microflora.
Other innovative diagnostic examinations cannot always accurately identify a bacterium, producing false positive or false negative results. These include polymerase chain reaction, enzyme immunoassay and other methods.
Microbial growth conditions
Each type of bacteria requires individual living conditions: a certain level of acidity, humidity, viscosity, osmotic properties. In laboratory conditions, to determine the causative agent of the disease, it is sown on certain environments, taking into account the peculiarities of respiration, nutrition and reproduction of microorganisms.
There are environments in which several different types of bacteria can multiply and grow. Such living conditions are called universal (environment Saburo, thioglycolic). Others are only for one strain (for example, staphylococcus and streptococcus sow on salt or blood agar).
The purpose and significance of diagnosis
Microorganisms that fall on the mucous membranes and human skin can be divided into the following groups:
- Normal microflora – those bacteria that are permanent safe inhabitants. Without them, the human body cannot function properly, since representatives of normal microflora participate in the processes of digesting food, synthesizing vitamins and enzymes. An insufficient number of microorganisms leads to the development of dysbacteriosis or bacterial vaginosis.
- Conditionally pathogenic microorganisms – These strains are safe for humans only in case of strong immunity. If their living conditions change, the bacteria begin to actively grow and multiply, causing pathology or disease.
- Pathogenic (pathogenic) microorganisms – they do not dwell in a healthy body. With accidental infection cause the development of the disease, even death.
Bakposev on microflora and sensitivity to antibiotics has a major role in the process of identifying bacteria, their strain, type. This method is important for the diagnosis of infectious diseases and sexually transmitted diseases.
Bakposev microflora as an independent analysis is not carried out. He is prescribed by a doctor in cases where there is a suspicion that a pathogen causing the pathogen or a growth of the condition and pathogenic bacteria is in the patient’s body.
The following diagnostic measures are carried out:
- urogenital buckposev;
- Bakpos from nose, ear, pharynx, eyes;
- bakposev on microflora from the wound;
- bakposev urine, milk, bile, sperm, feces;
- Bakpos on Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma and other pathogens.
How to decipher the results
After receiving the results I want to immediately get acquainted with them. The laboratory letterhead states the following:
- Type of pathogen in Latin. Translation of titles, as a rule, causes the most difficulty for curious readers. After reviewing the results, the doctor will tell you more about the type of pathogen and the features of its reproduction.
- Quantitative indicators of microbial growth. In most cases, colony-forming units of cells per 1 ml of material are used. For example, bakposev on microflora and sensitivity to antibiotics of urine with normal indicators should contain up to 10 3 CFU / ml. Results with high rates may be questionable or indicate the presence of an inflammatory process.
- Specifying the pathogenicity of the strain. In this paragraph indicate whether the microorganism is pathogenic or opportunistic, living on the mucous membranes of the human body.
Determination of pathogen sensitivity
In the case of determining the strain of a pathogenic microorganism, it is sown in the laboratory on media with antibiotics. On those environments where growth will be minimal or negative, experts make notes in the form of the result. These antibacterial agents are considered to be the most effective when choosing treatment for the inflammatory process.
Since bakposev on microflora is a fairly long process (up to 7 days), first of all prescribe drugs that have a wide range of actions. Most microorganisms are resistant to one or another medication, which means that weekly administration may not only be ineffective, but also significantly beat the patient’s pocket.
An antibiogram, the decoding of which also requires the participation of a specialist, will allow you to stop the choice on the only effective tool. In the laboratory form indicate the following:
- strain and type of pathogen, its number in CFU / ml;
- names of antibacterial drugs with indication of sensitivity (R, S, I) and zones.
Antibiogram (decoding of Latin letters) says the following:
- R – pathogen resistant to the drug;
- I – the microorganism exhibits moderate resistance;
- S – bacterium sensitive to this antibiotic.
Preparation for the fence material
Any biological fluids and smears taken from the mucous membranes can serve as a material for diagnosis. More often a smear on baccosis prescribed by specialists in the field of urology and gynecology. To get the right results, you need to properly prepare for the collection of material.
If the culture is performed on the basis of the patient’s blood, then no special preparation is required. The only condition is to pass the analysis on an empty stomach. The health worker takes venous blood, observing all the necessary rules of asepsis and antisepsis.
The conditions for passing urine are slightly different. In a healthy person, it is in the bladder in the form of a sterile biological fluid. With the passage of urine through the female urethra, a small amount of cocci can get into the material, which is taken into account when conducting diagnostics and is considered normal (staphylococcus and streptococcus, diphtheroids). In males, the supply of urine with bacteria occurs in the anterior part of the urethra.
To reduce the possibility of penetration of other pathogenic microorganisms, the following rules should be followed:
- preliminary toilet genitals;
- use of a medium portion of urine;
- delivery to the laboratory within 2 hours after collecting the material;
- The analysis jar must be sterilized or purchased at a pharmacy.
If the material for bakposeva taken from the rectum, urethra, vagina, cervical canal, then this occurs in the conditions of private laboratories or medical institutions. It is forbidden to wash, douch and use antiseptics, as this will distort the correctness of the diagnosis.
The intestinal tract has permanent inhabitants who are involved in the processes of digestion, the synthesis of vitamins and enzymes. The ratio of bacteria is constant and may vary slightly in one direction or another.
With a decrease in immune forces, ingestion of pathogenic microorganisms or prolonged use of antibiotics, the normal ratio is disturbed. The number of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria is sharply reduced, and pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, Proteus, Clostridium, Pseudomonas bacillus, yeast fungi, etc. may take their place.
Feces for diagnosis collected in a sterile transport container. The result of sowing is ready from 3 to 7 days.
Crops during pregnancy
Sowing is a compulsory diagnostic method during childbirth and is performed twice: during registration and at 36 weeks. Smear taken from the genital tract, as well as the nose and throat. Thus, the presence of urogenital inflammatory processes and the carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is determined. Pregnant women also pass urine for sterility culture.
The trouble that can be detected is E. coli in a smear in women. Treatment of such a condition should be urgent. This is especially true for pregnant women, because the presence of pathogenic microflora can lead to infection of the baby while passing through the birth canal. If E. coli is detected in a smear in women, the gynecologist prescribes the treatment. A combination of local therapy and systemic drugs is used.
Chlamydia, fungi, mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, and trichomonads become the objects of the search during the childbearing period.
An antibiotic baccosis is an indicative diagnostic method that allows a true differentiation of the pathogen and an effective treatment regimen. All material collection methods are safe and painless.