Functions of the pelvic bones
- As already mentioned, the main functions of the pelvic bones are protective and supporting. Being the receptacle of the so-called pelvic organs, the pelvic bones prevent them from being injured by gross physical external influences and maintained in space.
- The bones of the pelvis are involved in the process of blood formation due to the presence of a large amount of red bone marrow in them.
- The pelvis plays an important role in body movement and maintaining natural balance, contributing to the uniform distribution of the load on the limbs while in an upright position (standing) and while performing various movements.
- The pelvic bones support the vertebral column, which is attached to them, and their normal position relative to the axis of balance allows you to maintain the correct posture.
The consequences of improper location (skew) of the pelvis
Changing the location of the pelvis can cause quite unpleasant consequences:
- Curvature of the spine and the violation of its function. When the pelvis is displaced, the vertebral axis is displaced, which often leads to an uneven distribution of the load inside the vertebral column, excessive pressure on some points, as a result of which bone structures are gradually destroyed in these places. Subsequently, this may cause the occurrence of degenerative changes in the vertebrae, the formation of intervertebral hernias, the development of deforming osteoarthritis, spinal stenosis, radiculitis and many other diseases of the spine.
- As a result of displacement and dysfunction of the spine, a person has pain in various parts of the back, shoulders, neck and limbs. The functions of the extremities may be disturbed and the carpal tunnel syndrome may develop.
- Strengthening the load on one of the lower limbs. When the pelvis is positioned correctly, the load is divided evenly between both limbs. When it skews, the center of gravity shifts, and the force of gravity acts more on one leg.
Causes of pelvic bias
- Muscle imbalance The lack of adequate physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, “sedentary” work often lead to the fact that some groups of muscles of the human body gradually weaken and even atrophy, while others are in constant tension, a state of increased tone. The balance of muscle tissue is disturbed, which normally should form a kind of support corset for the whole musculoskeletal system. As a result of the tension of some muscle groups against the background of weakening others, the pelvis may shift.
- Injuries to the pelvic bones (due to mechanical impact – falling or hitting). The most serious injuries include fractures of the pelvic bones and, especially, fractures accompanied by a rupture of the pelvic ring. Improper adherence of these fractures can lead to disruption of the shape and subsequent displacement of the pelvis.
- Physical overstrain (sharp weight lifting, long carrying heavy objects on one side of the body, etc.). Often, pelvic distortion occurs in people engaged in powerlifting and weightlifting, especially if these classes are held without the control of an experienced and competent instructor.
- Pregnancy. The female pelvis is quite flexible and elastic by nature, which is provided so that the woman could later have a baby. Therefore, during pregnancy, especially when carrying a large fetus, the female pelvis may well shift. Also, a woman may have a violation (displacement) of the pelvis during childbirth.
- Damage to the muscles of the pelvis and adjacent areas of the body. As a rule, damaged muscles are less elastic, more dense and tense than healthy ones. If a portion of the muscle tissue in the pelvic region is damaged, the tension and compaction of the fibers of this portion will cause tension of the ligaments and displacement of the bones forming joints and fixed joints relative to each other. If the muscles do not fully recover and remain in an elevated tone, the pelvic bones will eventually shift relative to each other and change the position of the pelvis relative to other parts of the bone skeleton. Depending on which muscle is damaged in this case, the pelvis will move in different directions. For example: – damage to the lumbar muscles causes the pelvis to move forward; – damage to the quadriceps leads to hip flexion; – damage to the hip adductors will cause the pelvis to tilt forward and turn the thigh inward.
- The difference in the length of the lower extremities, which is a manifestation of anatomical features or a consequence of the disease. Most often, the different lengths of the legs cause a displacement of the pelvis from right to left, but sometimes in such cases the pelvis shifts from front to back or from back to front. Pelvis torsion may also occur.
- The presence of a hernia of the intervertebral disc. The displacement of the pelvis in such cases occurs as a result of a long-term muscle spasm, and the distortion is functional. The mechanism of the formation of pelvic obliquity in this case is similar to that with muscle damage.
- Surgical intervention in the area of the bones that form the pelvis, as well as in the area of the hip joints.
- The presence of scoliotic changes in the spine (congenital or acquired), especially in the lumbar region.
Indirect signs of possible pelvic bias
- Pain arising mainly during movements.
- Stiffness of movement.
- Shakiness when walking, frequent falls are symptoms of a moderate pelvic distortion.
- Pain in the back, shoulders and neck, especially often there is pain in the lumbar region with irradiation to the lower limb.
- Pain in the thigh.
- Pain in the projection of the sacroiliac joints.
- Pain in the groin area.
- Pain in the knee, ankle, foot, or Achilles tendon.
- The appearance of the difference in the length of the lower extremities.
- Bladder dysfunction.
- Intestinal dysfunction.
- Dysfunction of the genitals.
- Medical history: clarification of complaints and possible causes of pelvic dislocation.
- Physical examination of the patient: – visual inspection; – palpation (palpation) of painful areas.
- The use of instrumental methods of examination, namely: – radiography of the spine and pelvic bones; – magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine and pelvic bones; – computed tomography (CT) of the spine and pelvic bones.
Treatment is prescribed after establishing the cause of the pelvic dislocation, and should be directed, first and foremost, to eliminate this cause. The following methods are recognized as effective:
- manual therapy;
- medical gymnastics complex;
- performance of a complex of special gymnastic exercises;
- special massage;
- if necessary, surgery is performed.
In addition, symptomatic treatment is prescribed:
- taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
- in the presence of severe pain, short-term use of analgesics is indicated;
- applying therapeutic ointments and dry heat on the painful area of the body;
- physiotherapeutic methods of treatment.
In any case, which methods of treatment will be effective in a particular case should be decided only by a specialist: a doctor – a neurologist, an orthopedic surgeon. The most ideal option is when the treatment will be prescribed by all these specialists after a joint discussion, that is, a commission.
The treatment of this pathology is quite problematic, requires a certain time, and the duration of the course of treatment depends on the duration of the period of the presence of a pelvic dislocation.
Getting a positive result from the treatment is often difficult due to the fact that during the existence of a pelvic skew, a person has an incorrect stereotype of movements. In addition, as is shown by practice, it is very often the muscles that can hinder the reduction of skewing, which, in response to the appearance of skew, create the so-called block-reflex tension of some muscle groups, thus trying to eliminate this displacement.