In recent years, the attention of the general public has been riveted to one of the main substances found in the human body, cholesterol. Everyone knows that it is bad and good, its high content in the body is bad and that it participates in many metabolic processes. The purpose of this article is to find out what types of cholesterol are in the human body, and to what consequences both its elevated blood levels and lowered results.
The balance of cholesterol in the body and its role in metabolism
Cholesterol of low-density lipoprotein LDL, traveling through the circulatory system, tends to be deposited on the vascular walls. With its elevated concentration in the blood, this process is accelerated. As a result, there arises and develops a disease called vascular atherosclerosis.
HDL cholesterol is responsible for the mechanism for removing excess fatty compounds from the circulatory and lymphatic systems – reducing the amount of bad cholesterol in the body. In the body of a practically healthy person, there is a balance laid by nature itself between the content of bad and good cholesterol. With the development of pathologies of different etiologies, this balance is disturbed and the development of atherosclerosis begins.
On average, a person consumes 300 mg of cholesterol during the day with food, the body itself produces about 1000 mg. Its absorption occurs in the small intestine, the main part is processed in the liver with the formation of cholic and chenodesoxycholic acids. The majority enters low-density lipoproteins and along with the blood enters the organs.
The more cholesterol enters the body with food, the greater its concentration in the blood and lymph.
But the main problem is that the mechanisms of formation of internal (endogenous) cholesterol simply stop their action and its concentration decreases sharply. Processing and disposal of LDL slows down. The ratio of bad and good cholesterol is changing.
The factors that influence cholesterol concentration are:
- the rate of cholesterol formation in the liver;
- the intensity of absorption in the intestine;
- the speed of its evacuation with bile;
- intensity of lipoprotein metabolism.
At the slightest change or violation of the course of the above processes, the level of cholesterol in the human body changes, which is immediately reflected in the results of blood tests.
This substance plays an important role in the metabolic processes of the body, and is also a building material from which substances and hormones are produced, besides, it is also a regulator of metabolic processes. Its main functions include:
- is part of the cell membrane;
- provides permeability of cell membranes;
- regulates the interaction between cells, is involved in the transmission of nerve signals in the cell;
- is a basis for the synthesis of myelin sheaths of nerve fibers;
- it produces hormones such as cortisol, testosterone, progesterone, estrogens;
- participates in vitamin exchange: A, D, E and K.
The latest research in the field of medicine suggests that good cholesterol (HDL) has antioxidant properties.
Based on the above, we can conclude that it is an integral part and an active participant in almost all metabolic processes in the human body.
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Cholesterol is a substance that is present in the human body at the cellular level. It participates in many metabolic processes and in the synthesis of hormones and vitamins. In terms of terminology, total cholesterol is a chemical compound of steroids and alcohols, which is contained in all parts of the body and organs of a person, its chemical formula is C27H45OH. Cholesterol, or, as it is also called, total cholesterol, is synthesized in the liver and also enters the body with food. It was first obtained from the gallbladder calculus in 1784.
Cholesterol produced in the human body is called endogenous, and the one that comes in from the outside is exogenous. Being, in fact, a fatty compound, it does not dissolve in water, therefore, to transport cholesterol in the blood, it must be dissolved with the help of lipoproteins.
From the site of the main synthesis – liver lipoproteins enter the blood for delivery to the organs and tissues of the body. Their density is quite low, so the cholesterol they contain is called low density lipoprotein cholesterol – LDL. This is the so-called bad cholesterol.
Another type of cholesterol returned by lipoproteins from organs and tissues of the body to the liver is called high-density lipoprotein cholesterol – HDL – “good” cholesterol. Both species circulate in the human body and have a positive and negative effect on the body, respectively.
Elevated cholesterol – the threat of atherosclerosis
In an adult’s body, the rate of total cholesterol is 5 mmol / l (not more). To assess the likelihood of atherosclerosis and diseases of the cardiovascular system, it is necessary to control the content of lipoproteins LDL and HDL.
One of the most dangerous diseases is atherosclerosis. It is a pathology of the vessel wall, as a result of its degenerative changes, the permeability of blood vessels and arteries decreases.
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An excessive amount of LDL cholestrol leads to its deposition on the walls of blood vessels and the formation of first fat spots, and subsequently cholesterol plaques. Over time, they calcined and compacted. The lumen of blood vessels is reduced, the blood flow is hampered. This leads to disruption of the blood supply to the organs and tissues of the body.
If, according to the results of the blood test, the level of cholesterol in the blood exceeds 5.1-6.5 mmol / l, in order to obtain a reliable result, the analysis is carried out again with an interval of 4-6 weeks. It is not recommended to change the lifestyle, nutrition and
But before this, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive examination, including: complete blood count, blood test for sugar, thyroid hormone TSH, creatinine, urinalysis and
Prevention of atherosclerosis
In addition to monitoring the concentration of LDL and HDL in the blood, in order to prevent the need to take a whole range of different measures. This is especially true of representatives of the risk group, the likelihood of the development of vascular pathologies in which it is most likely.
Risk factors include:
- bad habits;
- Unhealthy Lifestyle;
- unbalanced nutrition;
- chronic diseases;
In preventing the development of cardiovascular pathologies, it is important that the approach should be systemic. The main condition is to adhere to the norms of a healthy lifestyle, combining diet with physical exertion, giving up bad habits such as smoking, alcohol, energy drinks and
Special attention should be paid to nutrition,
- animal fats, source – fatty meats, in particular, pork, butter and
Tea and coffee do not affect lipid metabolism, but lead to a loss of elasticity of the vascular wall, which facilitates the formation of fatty spots and cholesterol plaques.
White sugar can be replaced with cane sugar or honey. High-fat dairy products are replaced with low-fat and
- fish, river and sea (source of protein);
- fiber (source – raw vegetables and fruits);
- vegetable oils: olive, corn and
Adhering to this diet, combining physical activity with adequate rest, for several months, you can bring the level of cholesterol back to normal, as well as improve the blood vessels and heart. But it is necessary to adhere to such a lifestyle until the end of your days, because if you give it up after a short time, your health will deteriorate again, and diseases will develop with a new force.
Folk remedies for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases
It should be remembered that the use of folk methods of lowering cholesterol in the blood should be combined with the above measures, they themselves are ineffective. Pharmacies sell many herbal teas, fees for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. They are based on such components as: hawthorn, wild rose, thyme and many others, based on them prepare infusions, decoctions and
It is also widely known that green tea, which has antioxidant properties, can also significantly affect the concentration of cholesterol with regular use. From the east, from China and Japan, the tradition of eating came to us with the aim of normalizing the lipid metabolism of such products as sea kale, various algae, for example, spirulina, including contributing to the normalization of thyroid hormone production.
Do not forget about such a tasty and healthy tool as dried fruits and nuts. Their regular use in food not only helps in preventing the development of cardiovascular diseases, but also enriches the body with many vitamins and amino acids necessary for normalization of metabolism and general recovery.
It is important to remember that in many respects health and longevity depends on the person himself, his lifestyle, nutrition, physical activity. And then, even with poor heredity, the development of serious diseases can be avoided and one can live to a very old age.