Chlamydia in women refers to sexually transmitted diseases.
This means that the main route of infection of this infection is sexual.
This disease is widespread among women of reproductive age and among adolescents in all countries.
However, data on the true incidence of chlamydial infection is not. This is due to the fact that it is not possible to take into account the asymptomatic forms of the disease.
The given data have a wide range – from 15 to 35%, however, in the case of chronic inflammatory processes of the uterus and its appendages, this infection is found in 50%.
Causes of Chlamydia in Women
The main reason for the development of chlamydia is infection with chlamydia, which are representatives of Chlamidia trachomatis.
There are several serotypes of this bacterium, which can lead to different reactions on the part of the human body. Recently, a combination of chlamydia with diseases such as gonorrhea, trichomoniasis and nonspecific inflammatory processes of the urinary organs has often been observed.
Cases of contact-domestic infection, as well as intrauterine infection, are rarely registered. That is why this infection belongs to the group of sexually transmitted diseases. The infection can spread from the lower parts of the urogenital system to the upper ones, which leads to a new lesion and the development of complications.
Symptoms of chlamydia in women
There are no pathognomonic clinical signs of chlamydia in women, which leads to various diagnostic errors.
The structure of the pathogen and the particular response of the immune system to it cause the disease to start imperceptibly and for a long time can be completely asymptomatic. The nature and severity of clinical manifestations that develop later are completely dependent on the topography of the inflammatory process.
Often enough endocervicitis develops, which is characterized by such signs as:
- mucopurulent vaginal discharge
- contact bleeding from the genital tract
- the presence of an eroded surface (pseudo-erosion) on the cervix, which is determined by inspection in mirrors and colposcopy.
Pseudo-erosion with chlamydia has such signs as:
- bright red area on the cervix uterus
- smooth edges
- symmetrically located relative to the outer throat.
There may also be a lesion of the urethra with the development of urethritis (see the symptoms of urethritis in women). It is manifested by features such as:
- frequent urination
- pains and cramps occurring at this time
- the appearance of leukocytes in large quantities in the urine.
The spread of the pathological process to the internal genital organs leads to the development of the following diseases:
- endometritis – inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus (mucous layer)
- salpingitis – inflammation of the fallopian tubes
- salpingo-oophoritis – inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ovaries, which often accompany each other
- pelvioperitonit – inflammation of the peritoneum of the pelvic organs.
Given the polymorphism of clinical forms of chlamydia, the disease is implied and requires the exclusion or confirmation of the presence of the following symptoms:
- 1) Itching in the perineum and genitals
- 2) Increased secretions from the genitals mucous character
- 3) Lower abdominal pain that occurs periodically
- 4) Dysuria – frequent urination, pain, its accompanying, nighttime urination (up to 2 times per night is regarded as the norm, a larger number is a sign of pathology)
- 5) Violations of the ovarian-menstrual cycle in the form of menstruation delays, heavy menstrual, intermenstrual bleeding and
Diagnosis of Chlamydia
To establish the correct diagnosis requires additional research methods.
Diagnosis of chlamydia includes:
- 1) Serological examination – determination of antibodies to chlamydia in the blood
- 2) Polymerase chain reaction, which allows to detect DNA sequences that are characteristic of these microorganisms. This method is recognized as the golden diagnostic standard, as it has a high sensitivity and specificity.
Due to the fact that the disease is asymptomatic for a long time, it is necessary to adhere to the following recommendations:
- 1) To conduct an infectious examination once a year by one of the methods described above.
- 2) Girls who are sexually active as well as young women between the ages of 20 and 24 are subject to examination, especially with frequent changes of sexual partners and in the absence of the use of condoms.
Chlamydia treatment in women
Treatment of chlamydia is a rather difficult task, since chlamydia has a complex and long reproduction cycle.
Timely treatment of the sexual partner will prevent the infection of another sexual partner and, as a consequence, the development of a number of complications.
The main drugs used in such patients are antibiotics that penetrate well into the cell, where chlamydia reproduces.
These drugs include:
- azithromycin (a single dose is enough)
- doxycycline (used during the week and has a fairly low cost)
- Erythromycin and Ofloxacin are alternative drugs, as they are less effective and often lead to side effects.
After a course of antibiotic therapy, sex life is limited to one week after the last pill or after a single dose of Azithromycin. The possibility of its beginning is the absence of infection of another sexual partner.
There is no need for re-examination after the treatment. This is due to the high efficacy of the recommended antibacterial drugs (Azithromycin and Doxycycline). Exceptions to this rule are signs of infection after treatment or if reinfection is suspected.
After taking Erythromycin, control of cure is mandatory, since the effectiveness of this drug is lower than others. Laboratory examination for this purpose is possible only after 3 weeks, as false positive results can be obtained otherwise.
In addition, sex life is not allowed within a week after taking the last antibacterial pill.