The concept of blood pressure
The blood passing through the vessels presses against their elastic walls. The wider the blood vessel, the higher the pressure. As you know, in the human body there are arteries and veins, and in the arteries the norm is greater. The indicator depends on the caliber and size of the vessel, so it is believed that blood pressure should be measured in the brachial artery. Measure it in millimeters of mercury.
Doctors subdivide blood pressure (in short – BP) into upper and lower (systolic and diastolic). Systolic occurs during the contraction of the heart muscle, and diastolic – during relaxation. There is in medicine the concept of pulse pressure – that is, the difference between the upper and lower index. As a rule, it varies from 40 to 60 mm
At different ages, blood pressure and pulse rates are different. In young children, the elasticity of the vessels is higher, and therefore the pressure is low. Over the years, the vascular tone increases, therefore, the indicators increase, especially when puberty begins (at 11, 14 years).
Blood pressure, like the pulse, should be measured in a quiet state of children. It is best to do it in the morning or let it rest for 10 minutes. The child should not be nervous, be excited. An hour before the measurement must refrain from products containing caffeine. Immediately after eating the procedure is also not worth doing.
Today, both electronic blood pressure monitors and habitual phonendoscopes are on sale. For children, it is important to purchase special cuffs, as with the use of adults, the results can be significantly distorted. For newborn babies, the width of the cuff is recommended in 3 cm, for one-year-old children – 5 cm, preschoolers – 8 cm, adolescents from 12-14 years old – 10 or 11 cm.
Children under 2 years old should preferably be measured while lying down, the rest can be done while sitting. It is advised to take measurements several times, within a minute (rather than 10 seconds, followed by multiplication), and several days in a row. The most correct indicator is the smallest. It is important to explain to a small child that measuring blood pressure in children (under 14) or pulse is a normal procedure and does not apply to treatment. Then the baby will not be scared and the results will not increase.
During the procedure, a cuff is placed on the shoulder of the child’s left hand so that a finger can easily fit between the skin and it. The brachial artery should be found on the elbow and attach the phonendoscope to it. Air is pumped slowly, fixing the time when the sounds of the pulse stop. After that, the pressure is gradually reduced by opening the valve. With the upper pressure, you can hear the characteristic loud and short noises. The subsequent decrease in pressure pulse noise weakens. Lower pressure is recognized by the disappearance of pulse tones. The upper blood pressure is calculated by multiplying the child’s age in years with the addition of 80. The bottom figure is usually half or one third of the top.
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Norms of AD in children
In the first year of life, blood pressure in children increases rapidly. Up to five years in girls and boys it is approximately the same, then up to 10 (sometimes 11) years old boys have higher rates. To compare the performance of your child with normal for his age, we give a table, what should be the normal upper and lower pressure.
- in newborns: from 60 to 96;
- from two months to a year: from 90 to 112;
- in 2-3 years: from 100 to 116;
- in 3-5 years: from 100 to 122;
- from 6 to 9 years: from 110 to 126;
- in 10, 11, 12, 14 years: from 110 to 136.
- in newborns: from 40 to 50;
- from 2 to 12 months: from 50 to 74;
- in 2-3 years old: from 60 to 76;
- in 3-5 years: from 60 to 78;
- from 6 to 10 years: from 70 to 82;
- at 11, 12, 13, 14 years: from 70 to 86.
Physiological characteristics during puberty can lead to pressure drops in girls from 10 to 12 years, in boys from 11 to 13 years. It is believed that at this age, it is permissible to increase the upper results up to 120. Also, the indicators are influenced by how much the child’s body build – the lean and high blood pressure is slightly reduced.
At 12, 13 years, adolescents increase the amount of stress, stress in school, hormonal changes occur. In this period, both low and high pressure are possible. With age, these deviations from the norm, usually pass themselves, but it is better to find out the reason from the doctors.
Causes of high blood pressure
In girls from 10 to 12 years old, in boys from 11 to 13 years, hypertension is also quite common, that is, too high blood pressure. The reason for this may be:
- lack of sleep and rest;
- hormonal changes in the body;
- stress, psychological stress;
- excessive physical activity.
Among the dangerous causes, there are: brain damage, endocrine or renal pathologies, vascular tone disorders, poisoning. A visit to the doctor is necessary to identify the exact causes and, if necessary, to begin treatment.
Causes of low blood pressure
Reduced blood pressure (hypotension) can also occur in healthy children. The reason may be training, stuffiness in the room, a hearty lunch or heredity. Typically, this does not affect well-being, but in one out of ten children, hypotension is pathological due to such factors:
- mental strain and stress;
- trauma at birth;
- lack of physical activity;
- regular catarrhal and infectious diseases;
- excessive exercise;
- hormonal changes in 11, 12 years.
From the typical symptoms of hypotension children can be distinguished:
- pressing pain in the head, dizziness;
- fatigue and drowsiness;
- aching pain in the heart after physical education;
- touchiness, tearfulness, mood swings.
With such signs it is necessary to show the child to the doctor, since complications such as anemia, beriberi, diabetes mellitus, and head injuries are possible. The neurologist will determine the causes and prescribe the necessary treatment.
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From the video you will learn how to measure the level of blood pressure in children.