Today everyone is talking about antioxidants. Some consider them to be a powerful weapon against aging, others as a deception of pharmacists, and still others as a potential catalyst for cancer. So is it worth taking antioxidants? What are these substances for? What drugs can they be obtained from? We will tell about it in the article.
Four groups of substances
Currently, more than three thousand antioxidants are already known, and their number continues to increase. All of them are divided into four groups:
- Vitamins. They are water soluble and fat soluble. The former protect vessels, ligaments, and muscles, and the latter protect adipose tissue. Beta-carotene, vitamin A, vitamin E – antioxidants, the most powerful among fat-soluble, and vitamin C, B-group vitamins – among water-soluble.
- Bioflavonoids. For free radicals act as a trap, suppress their formation and help to eliminate toxins. Bioflavonoids mainly include red wine catechins and quercetin, which is abundant in green tea and citrus.
- Enzymes They play the role of catalysts: they increase the speed of neutralization of free radicals. Produced by the body. You can also obtain these antioxidants from the outside. Drugs, such as, for example, Coenzyme Q10, will fill the lack of enzymes.
- Minerals. The body is not produced, they can be obtained only from the outside. The strongest antioxidants of this group are calcium, manganese, selenium, zinc.
Antioxidants (drugs): classification
All antioxidants that are drugs by origin are divided into preparations of unsaturated fatty acids; preparations of proteins, amino and nucleic acids that react with products of free radical oxidation; vitamins, flavonoids, hormones and trace elements. We will tell about them in more detail.
Substrates of free radical oxidation
So called preparations of unsaturated fatty acids, which contain omega-3 acids. These include Epadol, Vitrum Cardio, Tecom, Omakor, fish oil. The main omega-3 polyunsaturated acids, dekohexanoic and eicosapentaenoic, restore their normal balance when administered from the outside. The strongest antioxidants in this group are listed below.
1. The drug Essentiale
This is a complex product that contains, in addition to phospholipids, vitamins with antihypoxant (nicotinamide, thiamine, pyridoxine, riboflavin) and antioxidant (cyanocobalamin, tocopherol) properties. The drug is used in pulmonology, obstetrics, hepatology, cardiology, ophthalmology.
2. Means Liping
It is an antihypoxant and a natural powerful antioxidant that restores the functional activity of the endothelium, has immunomodulating, membrane-protective properties, supports the antioxidant system of the body, has a positive effect on the synthesis of surfactant, pulmonary ventilation.
3. Medicines Espa-Lipon and Berlition
These antioxidants (preparations of thioctic acid) with hyperglycemia reduce the level of glucose in the blood. Thioctic acid is a vitamin-like substance formed endogenously in the body and participates as a coenzyme in the decarboxylation of a-keto acids. Means Berlition prescribed for diabetic neuropathy. And the drug Espa-Lipon, which is, among other things, a hypolipidemic agent, hepatoprotector and detoxifier, is used for intoxication with xenobiotics.
Preparations of peptides, nucleic acids and amino acids
Means of this group can be used both in mono-and in complex therapy. Among them, glutamic acid can be separately noted, which is capable, along with the ability to remove ammonia, stimulation of energy-producing and redox processes, and activation of acetylcholine synthesis also have a significant antioxidant effect. This acid is indicated for psychosis, mental exhaustion, epilepsy, reactive depression. Below we consider the most powerful antioxidants of natural origin.
1. Means Glutargin
This drug contains glutamic acid and arginine. It produces a hypoammonium effect, has antihypoxic, membrane stabilizing, antioxidant, hepato-and cardioprotective activity. It is used for hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, for the prevention of alcohol intoxication, elimination of hangover.
2. Medicines Panangin and Asparkam
These antioxidants (preparations of aspartic acid) stimulate the formation of ATP, oxidative phosphorylation, improve the motility of the digestive tract and the tone of skeletal muscles. These drugs are prescribed for cardiosclerosis, arrhythmias, accompanied by hypokalemia, angina, myocardial dystrophy.
3. Preparations Dibikor and Kratal
These products contain taurine, an amino acid with stress-protective, neurotransmitter, cardioprotective, hypoglycemic properties and regulating the release of prolactin and adrenaline. Taurine-containing preparations are the best antioxidants that protect against lung tissue from irritating substances. In combination with other medicines, it is recommended to use Dibikor with diabetes, heart failure. The drug Kratal is used in the IRR, vegetative neurosis, post-radiation syndrome.
4. Medicine Cerebrolysin
The drug includes as an active ingredient a hydrolyzate of a substance from the brain of a pig, freed from protein, containing amino acids and a complex of peptides. The tool reduces lactate content in the brain tissues, maintains calcium homeostasis, stabilizes cell membranes, reduces the neurotoxic effect of excitatory amino acids. This is a very powerful antioxidant, which is prescribed for stroke, endogenous depression, cerebrovascular pathologies.
5. Medicine Cerebrocurin
This preparation contains peptides, amino acids, low molecular weight products of proteolysis. It produces antioxidant, protein synthesizing, energy-producing effects. Means Cerebrocurin is used in diseases associated with the disruption of the central nervous system, as well as in ophthalmology for pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy, senile macular dystrophy.
6. The drug Actovegin
This medicine is a highly purified blood hemodialysis. It contains nucleosides, oligopeptides, intermediate products of fat and carbohydrate metabolism, thereby enhancing oxidative phosphorylation, the exchange of high-energy phosphates, increases the flow of potassium, alkaline phosphatase activity. The drug exhibits a strong antioxidant effect and is used for organic lesions of the eyes, the central nervous system, for faster regeneration of mucous membranes and skin in case of burns, wounds.
This group includes vitamin preparations, flavonoids, hormones. Among non-coenzyme vitamin aids that simultaneously possess both antioxidant and antihypoxant properties, we can mention “Coenzyme Q10”, “Riboxin”, “Coragin”. Other antioxidants in tablets and other dosage forms will be described below.
1. Medicine Energostim
This combined agent, besides inozyme, containing nicotinamine dinucleotide and cytochrome C. Due to the composite composition, the drug Energostim exhibits complementary antioxidant and antihypoxant properties. The drug is used for myocardial infarction, alcoholic hepatosis, myocardial dystrophy, brain cell hypoxia
2. Vitamin preparations
As already noted, water-and fat-soluble vitamins show pronounced antioxidant activity. Tocopherol, Retinol and other medications containing carotenoids can be distinguished from fat-soluble drugs. Among the preparations of water-soluble vitamins, nicotinic and ascorbic acids, Nicotinamide, Cyanocobalamin, Rutin, and Quercetin have the greatest antioxidant potential.
3. The drug Cardonat
Includes pyridoxal phosphate, lysine hydrochloride, carnitine chloride, cocarboxylase chloride. These components are involved in the oxidation of fatty acids to acetyl CoA. The drug activates the processes of growth and assimilation, produces anabolic hepato, neuro, cardioprotective effects, greatly enhances physical and intellectual performance.
Of the preparations containing flavonoids, tincture of hawthorn, echinacea, motherwort, and pink radioli can be distinguished. These funds, in addition to antioxidant, also have immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective properties. Antioxidants are sea buckthorn oil containing unsaturated fatty acids, and domestic herbal remedies produced in the form of drops: Cardioton, Cardiofit. The hawthorn tincture should be taken for functional disorders of the heart, motherwort tincture – as a sedative, tinctures of pink and echinacea radioli – as a means of a general tonic action. Sea buckthorn oil is indicated for peptic ulcer, prostatitis, hepatitis.
5. Means Vitrum antioxidant
This is a complex of minerals and vitamins, exhibiting pronounced antioxidant activity. The drug at the cellular level protects the body from the damaging effects of free radicals. Vitrum A, E, C, as well as trace elements such as manganese, selenium, copper, and zinc are part of the Vitrum antioxidant product. Vitamin and mineral complex is taken for the prevention of hypovitaminosis, to increase the body’s resistance to infections and colds, after treatment with antibacterial agents.
Antioxidants in the form of drugs should be used by people over the age of forty, heavy smokers, those who often eat fast food, as well as those working in poor environmental conditions. Patients who have recently had an oncological disease or are at high risk of developing it are contraindicated. And remember: it is better to get antioxidants from natural products, not from medicines!