Cholesterol is a highly controversial chemical compound. By its nature, this organic substance is a fatty alcohol. Most of the cholesterol is produced by the human body (the liver, almost 75%) and comes in small amounts from food: fatty meats, etc. (about 25%).
By itself, cholesterol is not bad and not good. On the one hand, this substance is involved in the synthesis of active proteins (hormones), cellular structures. On the other hand, it accumulates excessively and begins to settle on the walls of blood vessels, forming stratifications that narrow the lumen, which can cause ischemia of the organs.
Thus, both deficiency and excess of cholesterol are bad. But if the organism is able to cope with a deficiency itself, a change in diet and lifestyle is required to lower the level of cholesterol in the blood. Obviously, this is somewhat more complicated, and requires remarkable volitional effort from a person. Diet with high cholesterol – this is the right choice, from our article you will learn all the nuances of a healthy diet.
List of foods that increase cholesterol in the blood
To avoid high concentrations of cholesterol in the bloodstream, it is necessary to limit the consumption of the following products (and in the case when the level is significantly elevated, completely discard them):
Chicken Yolk The greatest amount of cholesterol is found in the egg yolk. 100 g of yolk contains 1234 mg of cholesterol. And one yolk contains about 210 mg, while the whole egg 212 mg.
However, the egg is an ambiguous product, since in addition to cholesterol, there is another 400 mg of lecithin in the egg, which reduces the level of bad cholesterol in the blood. And it is just as much as you need to cholesterol from the yolk does not harm the body.
Liver, liver pate. Since cholesterol is synthesized by the liver, the largest amount of cholesterol in a concentrated form is contained in this organ. Cholesterol contains all the liver dishes: pastes and
Fish Caviar All types of caviar contain large amounts of cholesterol, up to 300 mg per 100 grams.
Substitutes for butter. Recently, natural oil is replaced with margarine and palm oil. These foods, although not abundant in cholesterol, are also no less, and maybe more harmful.
Shrimp The shrimp cholesterol content is high enough. According to Western sources, shrimp contains 150-200 mg of cholesterol, and according to domestic sources only 65 mg.
Fast food (fast food). It has a high fat content, in connection with which the liver has to produce a significant amount of cholesterol for the synthesis of digestive juices.
Margarine. Formally, it does not contain cholesterol, since it is produced from fats of plant origin. However, margarine is rich in trans fats, the processing of which is a difficult task for the liver. As a result, the body is forced to produce a huge amount of cholesterol.
Sausages, smoked meats. They contain cholesterol by themselves, and are also rich in saturated fats, which require cholesterol for processing.
Fatty cream. The higher the fat content of this dairy product, the more cholesterol the liver synthesizes, and the higher its concentration in the blood.
Cheese products. Cheese, although not a record holder for cholesterol content, still contains it. The highest concentration in hard cheeses.
Despite all this, the question of the role of food in excess cholesterol is quite controversial. The relationship of increasing the concentration of cholesterol in the blood and the human diet has not been proven. Therefore, recommendations to refuse this or that food are doubtful. In a healthy person, a temporary increase in cholesterol level is a small problem that the body is able to cope on its own.
List of cholesterol-lowering foods
The consumption of many foods helps to normalize the level of cholesterol in the blood:
Foods rich in mono- and polyunsaturated fats. If a person has elevated levels of cholesterol in the blood, it makes sense to replace foods that are saturated with animal fats with foods that contain vegetable fats. These include, for example, sunflower oil, olive oil, avocado, etc. Using a diet that uses vegetable fats allows you to reduce cholesterol in the blood by almost 20%.
Cereal products (bran). Despite the fact that bran is a by-product, they are a serious tool in the fight against cholesterol. The basis of bran is fiber, which plays the role of ballast and prevents the absorption of cholesterol into the intestinal wall and further penetration into the bloodstream. Thanks to bran, cholesterol can be reduced by almost 15% (7-15%).
Flax-seed. Flaxseed has proven to be effective against cholesterol. According to studies, only 45-50 grams of seeds per day can reduce the concentration of cholesterol by almost 8%, and in some cases by 15%.
Garlic. Raw garlic is a great help in eliminating excess cholesterol in the blood. He is able to reduce the level of this substance by almost 12%.
Peanuts (almonds). If you believe the research, the consumption of almonds has a beneficial effect on the dynamics of cholesterol in the blood. Eating it helps to reduce the concentration of fatty alcohol by 8-10%.
Fruits, vegetables, berries red. Red plant products contain a common pigment – lycopene. It is he who gives this color to vegetables, fruits and berries. The scientists did not succeed in identifying a direct link between the dynamics of cholesterol and the amount of lycopene consumed; however, according to some data, including them in the diet can reduce cholesterol levels by almost 18%.
Peanuts, walnuts, pistachios. Have the ability to eliminate cholesterol. However, the greatest efficiency of their action is observed in conjunction with a decrease in the consumption of fatty foods that increase cholesterol levels. In this case, the nuts can reduce the rate by 9-10%.
Barley flour, groats. Barley is more suitable for cholesterol than wheat cereals. These results were obtained by researchers. Barley can lower cholesterol in the blood by almost 8%.
Green tea). Traditionally considered a useful product in the East. Although its ability to eliminate cholesterol is lower than that of other products from this list (about 4-5%), tea consumption is available to all.
Chocolate (dark, with a cocoa powder content of at least 70%). Like green tea, it has the least pronounced property to eliminate cholesterol (4-5%). However, its consumption is not only easy for a person, but also extremely pleasant.
Can I eat butter, eggs, shrimp, drink alcohol?
Is it possible to have oil with high cholesterol?
The active development of the food industry has led to the fact that even the most innocent and familiar to man since childhood products began to be accused of a high degree of harm to the body. Not bypassed this fate and butter. But is dairy product really pleasant in taste and color, is it so harmful, or is it a matter of eliminating the “natural competitor” for the sake of synthetic spreads and margarine?
The main and only argument of supporters of the harmfulness of the oil is its high fat content. The fat content of butter varies from 72% to 82%, which is really quite a lot.
However, by focusing on this formal indicator, the opponents of the oil did not take into account many other factors:
Scientific studies have been conducted. Scientists gathered two control groups. One actively consumed butter. The other is its substitutes: spread and margarine. During the experiment it was revealed that the level of cholesterol in the blood of the subjects from the first control group was not increased, moreover, in some of them the concentration of cholesterol became lower than the initial value. The members of the second control group had cholesterol levels higher than the initial value and higher than the established norm. Formally, this could not be, and the spread and margarine are made from synthetic substances and vegetable fats. However, for processing by the body, they require more strength, and, consequently, the liver has to work much more intensively and produce cholesterol;
Natural butter contains not only cholesterol, but also a substance such as lecithin. It produces the opposite effect, splitting cholesterol molecules and reducing its concentration in the blood. The proportional content of lecithin and cholesterol in butter is in balance, so it can be argued that the oil does not have a harmful effect on the body.
Experiments were also conducted on rats. The results were identical. Butter not only does not increase, but can also reduce cholesterol levels.
However, you need to understand that we are talking about eating fresh butter, and not frying on it!
Thus, there is no point in believing the recommendations to limit the consumption of butter. Although it contains cholesterol and is high in fat content, cholesterol is balanced by lecithin, and compared to synthetic products, oil is more common for the body. Therefore, it is relatively easy to digest. Attacks of advocates of a healthy lifestyle in this case are untenable. However, the abuse of butter is also not worth it. In all things it is important to be guided by a sense of proportion.
Do eggs raise cholesterol?
Every person actively consumes eggs. Chicken egg is present on any table. Recently, however, more and more calls have been made to limit the consumption of eggs, and particularly zealous advocates of a healthy lifestyle are in favor of a complete rejection of eggs. This position is obsolete, and the myth about the harmfulness of eggs has long been debunked.
In the countries of Western Europe and the United States at the beginning of the 20th century, research was conducted, according to which it turned out that the egg contains a huge amount of cholesterol, about 1234 mg per 100 grams of product, a colossal figure. The peak of cholesterol hysteria occurred in the 70s. In the West, the myth about the role of eggs in raising cholesterol and developing atherosclerosis of blood vessels was dispelled in the 90s, in Russia and the CIS countries it still exists.
The problem is that supporters of the cholesterol theory of atherosclerosis and opponents of eggs do not take into account a number of important points.
They proceed from the fact that a high concentration of cholesterol is dangerous per se and causes a blockage of blood vessels with cholesterol layers (plaques). This is true, however, the thesis that the higher the consumption of cholesterol-rich foods, the higher the concentration of cholesterol in the blood, is erroneous.
It is important to keep in mind two factors:
Cholesterol does not exist in free form. It is transported through the body by special proteins;
By itself, cholesterol is not good and not bad. It becomes such only in the bundle with proteins.
When cholesterol interacts with transporter proteins, either low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or high-density lipoprotein is formed. Low-density cholesterol is the so-called bad cholesterol. It is he who settles on the walls of blood vessels. High-density – good cholesterol.
Definitely say what cholesterol will turn the fat from chicken eggs, it is impossible in advance. It all depends on the incident eaten foods. For example, fried eggs with sausage, fried eggs will contribute to the development of bad cholesterol. A hard-boiled egg is not. But in this case, not everything is so simple, and this statement is not an axiom.
In any case, the amount of synthesized cholesterol (even “bad”) will be so small that it cannot cause any serious consequences for human health.
And besides, do not forget that eggs – a real pantry of lecithin – up to 400 mg per egg. It reduces the level of bad cholesterol and has a lot of other useful properties.
Thus, there are no restrictions on the consumption of eggs. If a person is healthy, he can eat as many eggs as he wants. Restrictions apply only to persons who are specifically due to hereditary metabolism, as a result of which mainly bad cholesterol is produced. However, the number of such people is very small.
That is why worldwide dieticians, gastroenterologists, cardiologists have excluded eggs from the list of harmful products.
How much cholesterol in shrimp?
Several years ago, the program, which is conducted by Elena Malysheva, sounded a statement about the harmfulness of shrimp. If you believe the lead, shrimps contain large amounts of cholesterol, and therefore extremely harmful to health and their consumption can cause atherosclerosis.
Is this really the case? Indeed, these crustaceans are real champions in cholesterol content among all seafood. The concentration of cholesterol in them varies around 190 mg per 100 grams of product. This is less than in a chicken egg, but still a lot. It does not take into account that the shrimp contains a minimum of fat and saturated fatty acids. Therefore, to promote the synthesis of bad cholesterol simply can not.
In addition, the shrimp contains a lot of nutrients: F, K, Ca, I (necessary for the normal operation of the thyroid gland), vitamins and other necessary compounds. The paradox turns out: shrimps need to be consumed, as they are very useful, but they cannot be consumed, because the cholesterol content in these crustaceans is high.
To understand the topic and finally put an end to the question of the danger of shrimp, you should refer to foreign experience.
By the beginning of the 90s in Western countries, cholesterol hysteria subsided, but conversations about the harmfulness of shrimp began. The reason for this was a study conducted in the late 60s, the essence of which was the following experiment.
The control group was actively fed shrimp, about 290 grams each day. As a result of control measurements, it turned out that the concentration of cholesterol in the blood of all subjects increased. However, not only bad cholesterol, but also good has increased. Moreover, the “good” turned out to be almost twice as large. This means that the risk of atherosclerosis has become a little less, and shrimp can not cause this dangerous disease. The experiment involved 18 people. Of course, this control group cannot be considered an absolute criterion of truth, since there are too few statistical data.
But in Western countries, shrimp are not considered harmful today. Indirectly, the thesis about the benefits of shrimp can be confirmed by the mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries. So, Japan is on this indicator in the last places.
It is important to keep in mind that cholesterol in foods turns into “bad” or “good” not by itself, but under the influence of by-products. If the shrimp is part of any fatty food, it is likely that cholesterol is transformed into a harmful species. After frying in butter and when consumed with fatty foods, the benefits of shrimp are drastically reduced, but the harmfulness becomes relevant.
Thus, the information that is transmitted from television screens is not always true. Shrimps cooked in the best way and eaten with the “right” foods will only benefit. Frying in butter can increase the concentration of cholesterol, but in certain quantities eating shrimp, prepared by harmful ways, is permissible. It is important to know when to stop.
Does alcohol increase cholesterol?
Among ordinary people, there are two main points of view regarding the effect of alcoholic beverages on the concentration of cholesterol in the blood. Some argue that alcohol – the purest poison, which contributes to the level of fatty alcohol. Others, by contrast, are confident in the benefits of alcohol and its ability to destroy and remove cholesterol. Both that, and other representation is incorrect.
When deciding on the effect of alcohol-containing products on cholesterol levels, several points need to be taken into account:
It is important to know what kind of alcohol is in question.
It is important to consider the dosage of beverages.
Most often, to fight cholesterol, people consume vodka, whiskey, wine or brandy. They have a different composition and different effects on the body:
Whiskey. Whiskey, made on the basis of malt, has a pronounced cholesterol effect. The fact is that this alcoholic beverage contains a powerful antioxidant, ellagic acid. She actively fights free radicals and is able to eliminate excess cholesterol;
Vodka. Any curative effect of vodka is unable to provide (when it comes to cholesterol). Its consumption is not only useless from a medical point of view, but also dangerous. Often unscrupulous manufacturers use technical alcohol (methyl instead of ethyl) to reduce the cost of production (the so-called fake vodka). Methyl can cause severe poisoning, almost always accompanied by complete and irreversible loss of vision. The lethal dose is about half a tablespoon. Thereby, pursuing the reduction of cholesterol level with the help of vodka, one can lose health, and even life;
Cognacs, liqueurs. Cognacs and liqueurs are rich in active biological substances. They have a pronounced antioxidant effect and can reduce cholesterol levels;
Dry wine. Like brandy, wine has antioxidant and cholesterol effect.
Thus, of all alcoholic beverages, brandy, malt whiskey and good wines are able to provide a more or less pronounced effect without undue harm to health. But their uncontrolled use brings extremely destructive consequences, and there is no question of any benefit. As with any medicine, it is important to observe the dosage.
The therapeutic dose also depends on the type of drink. A completely healthy person with high cholesterol is allowed to take:
35-45 ml of liquor or brandy;
145-155 ml of dry red wine;
40 ml malt whiskey.
This amount must be consumed during the week, not every day. Do not forget that when taking many drugs aimed at combating cholesterol, alcohol is contraindicated. In the case of taking these drugs in parallel with alcohol therapeutic effect will not be, and the side effects will be much stronger.
Thus, alcohol in some doses, although it can have a positive effect on the concentration of cholesterol, you should not resort to taking it for the sake of treatment.