Blood coagulation – This is an important process that prevents blood loss in various injuries, violation of the integrity of blood vessels for various reasons. This is part of the work of hemostasis. There is primary hemostasis, hemocoagulation, coagulation, plasma hemostasis, secondary hemostasis. These are all parts of a single process in which protein strands called fibrin are formed in the blood. It forms blood clots, because of which the blood loses its fluidity, becomes curd and closes the places of damage to the blood vessels. Disruption of the blood clotting process can be caused by various reasons and entail undesirable consequences. To do this, it is necessary to know the standard indicators of the coagulation time of the blood, the rate and its own, especially before operations and in other cases involving damage to tissues and blood vessels.
In order to find out blood clotting, it is necessary to donate blood for analysis. This study is called a hemostasiogram or coagulogram.. This is a comprehensive analysis, the results of which can determine the presence of certain diseases in the body. First of all, blood clotting time is established, the norm of which is 1-3 minutes for primary hemostasis, 10 minutes to complete the process. Consider some indicators of blood clotting in more detail.
The main criteria for blood clotting and their rate
- Prothrombin time. This indicator is used to diagnose hemophilia, DIC, as well as to monitor the state of the blood in the process of taking heparin. The norm for adults is 11-15c, in newborns – 13-17c.
- Prothrombin index (PTI) – the ratio of the patient adopted for the standard PTI to the PTI of the patient who is examined, expressed as a percentage. Its rate is 70-100%
- Thrombin time. In the functioning of the blood clotting mode, it is the most important indicator. Norm – from 14 to 21 s, depending on the methods used for its determination.
- Fibrinogen. Normally, it is 2-4 g / l (in adults) and 1.25-3 g / l (in newborns). This criterion characterizes the functioning of the blood coagulation system and the likely presence of inflammation in the body. It can be influenced by several medical factors.
- Antithrombin 3 – an indicator that affects the formation of the smallest number of blood clots, is a regulator of the coagulation blood system.
- Bleeding time. Its rate is from 2 to 4 minutes. This is also a very important indicator.
- Clotting time – This is the time of blood clot formation in contact with an alien surface. Normally, it ranges from 2 to 5 min.
Proper preparation for blood clotting: a blood test (as well as a clinical blood test in children) must be taken on an empty stomach in the morning. If you need to pass this analysis at a different time of the day, then you must not eat, at least three hours before delivery. Including tea and coffee drinks should not be consumed, but only plain water. Usually, the results of the analysis can be obtained after 15 minutes.
If the blood clotting time is more than normal, it means that: there is a shortage of plasma factors, there are hereditary disorders, there may be liver disease or heparin therapy.
An indicator of clotting time less than normal may indicate the presence of hypercoagulation after heavy bleeding, for example, after surgery and after childbirth. It can also be caused by the side effects of synthetic contraceptives in the first stage of DIC. A decrease in blood clotting time indicates that hypercoagulation should be prevented in order to eliminate the possibility of thrombosis and thromboembolism.