Arthrosis is a severe disease of the joints, which is manifested by progressive dystrophy of cartilage tissue, it becomes thinner and destroyed. Subsequently, the ligamentous apparatus and bone tissue are involved in the process. Treatment of arthrosis of the joints is aimed at stopping the progression of the disease, reducing pain, preventing complications and restoring the mobility of the diseased joint.
It is necessary to treat the disease comprehensively and for a long time, with the selection of an individual regimen of medication and non-pharmacological agents.
All methods of treatment of arthrosis can be divided into 4 groups:
unconventional methods of traditional medicine.
Often patients have a question: where to treat arthrosis? The initial stages are treated in a rheumatological hospital. Patients in need of surgery are hospitalized in the orthopedic or surgical department.
At the initial stage of the disease, the main methods of treatment are methods without drugs.
Balanced diet, healthy lifestyle. To prevent the progression of the disease, patients should strictly observe the regime of work and rest, eat healthy food.
Today, there are special schools to cover the treatment of arthrosis. Training courses help the patient to adapt to his illness and successfully fight him.
Reducing the load on the joints. In the presence of overweight, it is necessary to reduce it – this will help to normalize the metabolic processes, as well as reduce the load on the joints.
Therapeutic exercise is carried out in a non-acute stage, performed in the supine or sitting position. Swimming and skiing is very useful.
Physiotherapy methods: heat exposure to the affected area (for example, paraffin baths), laser therapy, ultrasound, electrical nerve stimulation.
The use of various unloading devices. With lesions of the legs, walking with a cane is recommended, with osteoarthritis of the knee joint, heel wedges are used – this can reduce the load on the joints and, consequently, reduce the manifestations of the disease.
Massage improves blood circulation and helps restore joint mobility.
Patients with arthrosis show a spa stay, which has a beneficial effect both on the state of the articular system and on the whole organism. Improvement in the sanatorium should take place outside the stage of exacerbation of arthrosis, after examining the doctor and taking into account his recommendations.
Drug therapy is the main method of treatment. The choice of drugs for the treatment of osteoarthritis is not so great, all the means used can be divided into two large groups:
- Symptomatic medications affect the manifestations of the disease (painkillers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs – NSAIDs, glucocorticosteroid hormones). When applied, pain and inflammation disappear in a short time, which improves the quality of life.
- Chondroprotectors – means restoring damaged cartilage tissue and metabolic processes in it due to the activation of blood flow and stimulation of the appearance of new cartilage cells.
Symptomatic remedies are intended to eliminate the main manifestations of the disease and are prescribed to patients in the first place. Chondroprotectors contribute to stopping the progression of the disease and should be taken for a long period of time.
The main and one of the first symptoms of arthrosis is pain. It helps to remove the funds with analgesic and anti-inflammatory action. For a quick reduction of pain, local forms of drugs in the form of ointments and gels can be used, but their effect is short.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs help relieve pain and reduce inflammation. For the treatment of joints, it is preferable to use selective NSAIDs, which act predominantly on the articular tissue without adversely affecting other organs.
When using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, you must remember that you can not use more than one NSAID. The drug must be changed if there is no effect of therapy after 2 weeks. The doctor must select the minimum dose of NSAIDs in pills, which will reduce the pain.
Glucocorticosteroid hormones have a dual effect. On the one hand, the hormone protects the cartilage from destruction and relieves the inflammatory process, but on the other hand, it destroys the cartilage tissue during prolonged exposure. Therefore, they should treat arthrosis strictly under the supervision of a physician. It is often more effective to use glucocorticosteroids in the form of intra-articular injections, which have fewer side effects.
The scheme of treatment of arthrosis with the help of chondroprotectors implies their long-term continuous administration. The effect of these funds comes delayed, 2-8 weeks after the start of reception.
All drugs in this group have a stimulating effect on cartilage tissue, some of which slightly relieve pain.
In addition to traditional methods, the use of traditional medicine can have some positive effect. Apply to:
- Oral infusions with anti-inflammatory effects.
- Local remedies in the form of infusions for rubbing in, compresses or home-made ointments that can suppress inflammation and stimulate regenerative processes in cartilage.
All folk methods should be used only under the supervision of the attending physician and in no case can replace the main traditional treatment.
Surgical treatment of osteoarthritis is used in cases where drug therapy has not given the desired effect. There are several types of surgery:
Arthroscopy is a low-impact method for the treatment and diagnosis of joint diseases. This method allows, through small incisions, without opening the joint, with the help of special tools, to perform an operation and visually assess the extent of cartilage damage. Thanks to arthroscopy, the rehabilitation period and the time of hospital stay are reduced, the number of complications in the operative and postoperative periods is reduced.
Arthrodesis is one of the methods of surgical treatment, in the process of which the immobility of the articular surfaces is created. This technique allows you to remove pain, if you can not use other surgical effects.
Arthroplasty is a procedure for replacing articular cartilage with a pad of the patient’s own tissue or of artificial materials. Such an operation greatly facilitates the condition of patients, since it allows to restore a sufficient amount of movement.
Replacing damaged joints is an effective treatment of arthrosis, this method allows to treat its severe degree. With full prosthetics replace all components of the joint. The prosthesis is made of a special metal that is not perceived by the body as an alien one, the average lifespan of such transplants is 10 years. After prosthetics, patients fully recover their performance.
Modern methods of surgical interventions are being developed, such as the transplantation of tissue and cartilage cells. First of all, they are aimed at preventing the progression of the disease and the removal of its main manifestations.
Despite the fact that arthrosis is considered an incurable disease, early and comprehensive treatment allows you to stop the process of destruction of cartilage and maximally maintain mobility in the joints. A full and accurate compliance with all recommendations of the attending physician helps to avoid disability and significantly improves the quality of life of patients.