An example of a formal operational phase


Contradiction becomes the driving force of learning if …

a) it is understood by the student as requiring permission;

b) the resolution of contradiction is feasible for a student of this level of development;

c) this contradiction is a legitimate link in the system of contradictions requiring gradual resolution.

Logics educational process reflects the path of knowledge, which is a student in the learning process. The logic of the educational process depends on the age and level of preparedness of students, on the characteristics of the material being studied, on the goals and objectives of the educational process. For example, in elementary school the traditional logic of learning prevails: the perception of specific objects and phenomena → the formation of representations → the generalization of individual representations → the formation of general concepts. In middle and high schools, almost simultaneously with the perception of specific objects and phenomena, scientific concepts can be introduced, principles explained.

Structure the educational process is the construction of the learning process, the unity, interrelation and interaction of its individual components (I. F. Kharlamov):

– target (set goals and objectives of education, education and development of students);

– motivational need (motives of teaching and learning, the need for the transfer and perception of knowledge and experience);

– meaningful (education content);

– activity-operational (educational technologies);

– emotional-volitional (cognitive interests and responsibility in the educational process);

– control and adjustment (control of the course of the educational process, its correction);

– performance assessment (objective assessment of learning outcomes based on a comparison of the result obtained with the target component).

The main functions of learning: educational, educational, developmental. These functions are historically entrenched in the learning process, their implementation ensures the full development and successful socialization of the students’ personality.

Educational function consists in the formation of knowledge, skills, abilities, experience of creative activity.

Educational function associated with the formation of students’ morality, aesthetic ideas and tastes, the system of world views, the ability to follow social norms of behavior.

Developmental function lies in the fact that in the process of learning a child develops in all directions: his speech, thinking, emotional-volitional, motivational-needy and sensory-motor spheres of personality develop.

The problem of unity and interrelation of learning functions is that in order for a student to form a basic culture of personality, for his harmonious development, the learning process must be carried out in such a way that its functions are inseparable, implemented in all components of learning: in the complex of lesson tasks, in the content of learning material in the system of methods, techniques, forms and means of training and

Learning theory, like any science, seeks to cognize and formulate general laws that govern the processes, objects and phenomena that it studies. However, the pedagogical process is too complex, subject to the influence of many factors, including those that cannot be considered in advance. This makes a clear and unconditional formulation of the laws of learning impossible, at least in the present.

Learning patterns – insufficiently known laws, orderliness of known phenomena arising from the training of relationships and dependencies, as well as factors affecting the didactic process.

There are many approaches to the allocation of learning patterns.


1) from the needs of society;

2) on the processes of education, upbringing and development as parties to the holistic pedagogical process;

3) on student opportunities and external conditions.

Examples of specific learning patterns:

– the more active the child is in the educational process, the higher the learning outcome;

– if the teacher is available for children to present new material, they will understand it better;

– the more senses are involved in the perception of educational material, the better it is perceived and remembered;

– if you repeatedly repeat some action, then it can be performed without thinking, automatically;

– no matter how well the learning material is learned, it is still forgotten if it is not repeated periodically and

Principles of learning – these are fundamental provisions that reflect the general requirements for the organization of the educational process. The principles are formulated on the basis of the scientific analysis of the learning process, correlate with its laws, with the goals and objectives of education, with the level of development of pedagogical science, with the capabilities of the existing education system.

Today there is no consensus on the principles of teaching, the authors of various textbooks offer different formulations and a different number of principles. So,

However, with all the variety of existing approaches, a number of principles can be identified that have passed a long test of time and are present – one way or another – in the vast majority of modern textbooks and manuals on pedagogy. Consider these principles.

Principle of science focuses the teacher on the formation of students’ scientific knowledge. It is implemented in the analysis of educational material, the allocation of important ideas, the use of reliable scientific knowledge, facts and examples, as well as standard scientific terms. The implementation of this principle requires the teacher …

– correct students’ factual errors and organize the search and correction of such errors in the classroom;

– apply the latest scientific terminology, do not use outdated terms;

– be aware of the latest scientific achievements in your subject;

– encourage student research;

– to find the opportunity to acquaint schoolchildren with the technique of experimental work, the algorithm for solving inventive problems, the use of reference materials, archival documents, with the processing of primary sources.

Principle of consistency determines the need for students to form an integrated system of knowledge and skills, topics and sections of educational material. The principle of consistency is implemented in a set of rules, among which are the following:

– use plans, charts in order to ensure students learn the system of knowledge;

– divide the content of educational material into logical completed parts (

– state the basis of the theory, explain the consequences of the theory and show the limits of its application.

The principle of accessibility (feasibility) – reflection of principles sequences and gradualism learning, which are known from antiquity.

Perhaps one of the most convincing examples of the implementation of these principles is the history of the invincible ancient wrestler Milo, who lived in the IV century before

The essence of the principle of accessibility is that you first need to identify early formed knowledge and skills, and only then gradually implement new stages of learning. The principle of accessibility does not mean that the teaching should occur without effort on the part of the student, but overcoming the difficulties that arise should be feasible for him. To comply with this principle, you must follow a number of rules:

– to achieve the coincidence of the rate of communication of information and the speed of its assimilation by students;

– to orient students to understanding and understanding the material being studied, and not to memorization and cramming;

– when teaching, to proceed from the level of preparedness of students, to rely on their capabilities;

– study and take into account life experience, interests, peculiarities of development of students and

The principle of clarity It consists not only in the illustration of the subject and phenomenon being studied, but in the use of a whole complex of techniques and means that ensure the formation of a clear and precise perception of the knowledge communicated by the teacher. Here are some of the rules for effectively implementing the visibility principle:

– to use in learning the pattern according to which the memorization of objects presented clearly (for example, on models or pictures) happens better than if they are described only in verbal form;

– using the means of visualization, not to get involved in an excessive number of visual aids;

– when using visual aids, not only to show them, but to explain and comment on visual material;

– carefully prepare the types of visibility to the application, thinking out the accompanying didactic techniques;

– in the selection of means of visibility to take into account the age characteristics of students.

Principle of consciousness and activity aims to form students’ learning motivation, cognitive needs, conviction in the need to study the material, interest in learning. The essence of the principle is that the teacher should strive for understanding (rather than mechanical learning) of theoretical material by pupils and comprehending practical actions by them, encouraging them to take active learning actions, and stimulate independence in cognition. As recommendations for the practical application of this principle, the following rules can be given:

– use the possibilities of mutual learning;

– organize student competition and partnerships;

– provide conditions for collective search for the correct answer;

– enter into the educational process entertaining tasks, game elements;

– to learn to find the secondary and the main thing in the material under study;

– to use real life situations in teaching and to demand from students an independent understanding, a vision of the differences between the facts observed in life and their scientific explanation.

A distinctive feature of modern didactic concepts is their developing character, a new, active-activity way of learning. Consider some concepts of developmental learning.


· Learning at a high level of difficulty;

· Fast paced learning program material;

· The leading role of theoretical knowledge;

· The student’s awareness of the learning process;

· Targeted and systematic work on the development of all students, including the weakest.

These principles were implemented in specially developed programs and methods of teaching reading, writing, mathematics, environmental studies and other subjects. Education system

Concept of meaningful learning developed in the 1960s. research team led by psychologists

The concept of phased formation of mental action based on relevant theory

According to the concept of a phased formation of mental actions, the possibilities of the learning process increase significantly if, in the process of learning, children learn through the following interrelated stages:

1) the motivation of activities and the preliminary familiarization of students with the action and the condition for its implementation;

2) students’ awareness of the scheme, the algorithm of the forthcoming action (at this stage, schemes, instructions, memos that clearly represent the individual operations and their sequence are widely used);

3) external execution of the action and pronouncing the action out loud;

4) a summary of the action (usually this is a statement expressed aloud, summing up the action taken);

5) the stage of internal speech, the translation of the action from the external form (material) into the internal, mental;

6) the consolidation of the action in the internal, mental plane, the awareness of it as a personally significant, necessary.

Problem learning concept involves the search for reserves of mental development of students: the ability to creative thinking and self-cognitive activity. The scientific substantiation of this concept was made in the 1960–1970s. works

The essence of problem-based learning consists in organizing a teacher for students of problem situations, realizing these situations, their adoption and decision in the process of joint interaction between students and the teacher, with the maximum independence of the students and the general guidebook of the teacher.

Problem situations arise, for example, in such cases:

· If there is a discrepancy between facts already known to the student and new knowledge;

· If students are faced with new conditions for them to use existing knowledge and skills;

· If it is necessary to choose from the methods of solving the learning and cognitive task known to the student, the only correct or best one and

When creating problem situations, the teacher should be guided rules:

· Each task must be based on the knowledge and skills that the student already owns;

· The unknown that a student needs to “discover” when resolving a problem situation must be assimilated and contribute to the formation of really important knowledge and skills;

· The performance of the problem assignment should cause the student interest, the need for assimilable knowledge.

In problem-based learning, it is customary to single out four main stage:

1) awareness of the problem situation (“the situation requires resolution, because …”);

2) analysis of the situation and the formulation of the problem (“the problem is that …”);

3) problem solving: hypothesizing and justifying solutions, selecting the most logical hypotheses and their sequential testing;

4) verification of the correctness of the decision (the contradiction is eliminated, because …).

The question of what to teach is one of the most important in didactics. In different historical eras, eminent thinkers, public figures and teachers tried to answer him. As a result, by the beginning of the XIX century. two general scientific theories were formed, reflecting two basic views on the essence of this issue: the theory of didactic encyclopedism (the theory of the material content of education) and didactic formalism (the theory of the formal content of education).

The essence didactic encyclopedic is that the child must form a system of scientific knowledge, and the wider it covers various sciences, the deeper the knowledge, the better. Among the famous adherents of this point of view is the ancient philosopher Socrates, an English thinker of the XVI-XVII centuries. Francis Bacon and the founder of scientific pedagogy, Jan Amos Comenius.

AT didactic formalism the main value is not knowledge in and of itself, but methods of action, the ability to use knowledge in practice and to independently find it. In ancient times, this idea was formulated by Heraclitus (Multiple knowledge does not teach the mind). This theory was held by such outstanding teachers of the past as John Locke, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, Johann Herbart.

Both theories have their strengths and weaknesses: didactic encyclopedism well forms theoretical knowledge, but does not sufficiently link the learning to life, and didactic formalism equips with practical skills, but limits the development of theoretical thinking. Therefore, there is a third point of view, which in the second half of the nineteenth century. expressed the Russian teacher

In the late XIX – early XX century. theory is being created didactic pragmatism (didactic utilitarianism), at the origins of which are John Dewey and Georg Kerschensteiner. According to this theory, the content of education should be formed on an interdisciplinary basis, meet the requirements of practical benefits, as well as the interests and inclinations of the child. Proponents of this theory seek to diversify the content of education as much as possible, but do not require its development by all students. Diversity is necessary so that the child (or his parents, the persons replacing them) can choose what will most contribute to his self-realization in life. Accounting for individual characteristics is an important advantage of this theory. However, it also has disadvantages:

– in case of mass education, it is much more difficult to ensure its implementation than the implementation of previous theories;

– the variety of possible educational content makes it difficult for the child or his family to make the right choice, which often leads to a decrease in the quality of learning outcomes.

In the XX century. new theories of formation of the content of education appear. So, the Polish scientist-teacher Vincenty Okon developed a theory functional materialism. In his opinion, the content of education in any academic discipline should be formed on the basis of a certain leading idea, reflecting the specifics of this discipline, the features of its functions in the integral system of formation of a scientific outlook in a child. For example, in biology, such an idea would be the idea of ​​evolution, in history – the historical conditionality of sociocultural phenomena and

Another of the relatively new theories (mid-20th century) is the theory operational structuring educational content. In this theory, attention is paid not so much to the content of education itself, but to ways of structuring it: the unity of its parts and the links between these parts. The structure of the content of education is a very important aspect, since it depends on how the student learns the system of knowledge and experience in the content of education, how convenient this system will be for later practical use.

So, to the question What to learn? Answers the content of education.

Educational content – pedagogically adapted system of knowledge, skills and abilities, experience of creative activity and emotional-volitional relationship, the assimilation of which should ensure the formation of a comprehensively developed personality, ready to preserve and develop the material and spiritual culture of society (

In other words, the content of education is what a student must master as a result of training.

The content of education has not remained unchanged for centuries, it continues to change now. The content of education reflects the social ideal: the ideas that exist in society about what an educated person should be. The content of education depends on the socio-economic and socio-cultural conditions, on the level of development of the education system, on the degree of its control by the state and

The content of education is influenced by two main groups of factors:

1) the goal of education, expressing the needs of society (briefly, social needs can be formulated as the formation of a person who is necessary and useful to society);

2) features of a person as a participant in the educational process, patterns of his psychophysical development.

The source of the content of education is the experience of mankind, enshrined in material and spiritual culture. However, the experience gained by people is so huge that it is impossible to pass it on to the new generation in full. And this is not required, because many special knowledge will never be useful in the lives of most people, they will be needed only by professionals. But how to choose from the huge heritage of human culture exactly what is needed by all or the absolute majority of secondary school graduates – what will become the basis for further successful education and personal development? This is the main problem of selection of educational content.

– compliance of the educational content with the requirements of society, science, culture and personality;

– the unity of the substantive and procedural aspects of education (

– structural unity of the content of education at different levels of its formation: scientific theory, curriculum, educational material, teaching, student personality and

– humanitarization – focus on the person, on the creativity and assimilation of the universal culture (this principle implies the practical significance of the knowledge and experience gained for people);

– fundamentalization – the creation of a “foundation” of a self-developing personality (the unification of sciences and arts, the transfer of knowledge and skills to other sciences and arts, the formation of general educational skills, self-education skills).

In the development of the main components of the content of education from the 1990s to the present, two main approaches can be traced: knowledge and competence.

According to knowledgeable approach, the basis of the content of education is the knowledge generated in the educational process, and the structure of the content of education includes the following components:

knowledge – theoretical information, reflecting the systematized and generalized experience accumulated by mankind;

the skills and abilities to apply knowledge in practice on ready-made algorithms in standard situations (skills – possession of a meaningful action performed under the control of consciousness; skills – actions brought to automatism);

experience of creative activity – the ability of an individual to apply learned knowledge and skills (skills) in new situations for themselves, the algorithm of actions for which is not known in advance;

experience of relations to different sides of the world, to himself, formed as a result of understanding and emotional experience of the knowledge and experience acquired by an individual.

With competence approach the basis of educational content are competencies – the ability and ability of the individual to successfully solve certain tasks in educational activities in the personal and social sphere. Competences formed in the educational process are numerous, they relate to the types of human activity, to different areas of social interaction.

At present, the following competence structure is the basis for designing the content of general education:

The content of these competences blocks is disclosed in the Federal State Educational Standards of General Education.

At the beginning of the XXI century. the competence approach to the design of the content of education at all its stages becomes prevailing.

Designing the content of education for students of different levels of education is based on the idea of ​​the age-specificity of the pedagogical process (the essence of the age-specificity is disclosed in the topic The holistic pedagogical process).

The elementary school level corresponds to the primary school age. At this age, the regulation of the behavior of schoolchildren comes to the fore. The teacher influences children through their inclusion in the sphere of their vital activity. The factor of successful inclusion is the authority of the teacher: the student of the lower grades learns the new position of the student, and the teacher is a model for him. In the system of motivation for teaching in primary schools, the first place is occupied by a sense of duty to the teacher, the desire to fulfill his requirements. At this stage, the teacher performs dialogue dialogue mainly in the form of direct subjective requirements (indication, prohibition), indirect requirements (advice), as well as through a system of objective requirements (norms and rules).

The primary school level (grades 5-9) corresponds to adolescence. The features of this age are associated with the emergence of a new level of self-consciousness, which psychologists have conventionally called the “sense of adulthood”, which is expressed in the desire to be and be considered an adult. This is a completely different position in relation to the world around and to oneself. If the views of the younger student about themselves were adjusted to the opinions of adults about him, and the relationship was based on the child’s subordination to the adult, then for adolescent students such relations are unacceptable. In working with teenage students, the pedagogical impact through information and stimulation is most effective. In the system of relationships between a teenager and those around him, peers play a special role as more or less equal partners in communication. The subject of an active emotional relationship of adolescents are the events of collective life.

The grade of the full (middle) school corresponds to the senior school age. In the upper grades, the contradictions inherent in adolescence are somewhat mitigated (but do not disappear completely), and in most cases mutual understanding and equal relations with others, with teachers and parents are established. At the forefront is the awareness of their actual life position, their own capabilities, as well as intentions and aspirations. A senior student is notable for moralizing, so the teacher needs to combine information with instruction, which acts no longer as a direct requirement, but as an authorization (approval of the decision made by the student).

State educational standard – a system of basic parameters taken as the state norm of education, reflecting the social ideal and taking into account the capabilities of the individual and the education system to achieve this ideal (

The legal basis for state standardization of education is contained in Constitution of the Russian Federation, according to which the Russian Federation establishes federal state educational standards (Art.

The main reasons for the state standardization of educational content :

· It is necessary to ensure a uniform minimum level of education obtained in different types of educational institutions in Russia;

· It is necessary to take into account the trends in the development of education in the world (on the scale of an entire country, it is more rational to do this centrally.

The state educational standard fulfills a number of important functions, among which stand out:

· The function of social regulation – ensuring the equivalence of education in all educational institutions of the same level (for example, the minimum level of education for a graduate of a basic school is the same, regardless of whether he studied in a village or city, in a regular school or in a gymnasium);

· The function of humanizing education is connected with the approval of its personality-developing essence with the help of standards: the educational standard regulates only the minimum educational level, the education that is higher than this level can differentiate depending on the characteristics, needs, abilities of the students’ personality;

· The management function is that the standardization of educational content allows you to streamline educational systems, use uniform criteria for the quality of education, unify grades and

· The function of improving the quality of education is carried out on a national scale due to the possibility of establishing a lower limit of the level of education and constant modernization of the educational standard in order to raise the minimum educational level.

The basis of the new Federal state standards of general education system-activity approach, which implies:

· Education and development of personality traits that meet the requirements of the information society, an innovative economy, the tasks of building a democratic civil society based on tolerance, a dialogue of cultures and respect for the multi-ethnic, multicultural and multi-confessional composition of Russian society;

· Transition to a social design and design strategy in the education system based on the development of educational content and technologies, determining the ways and means of achieving the socially desirable level (result) of students’ personal and cognitive development;

· Orientation to the results of education as a system-forming component of the Standard, where the development of the personality of the student on the basis of mastering universal learning activities, knowledge and mastering the world is the goal and the main result of education;

· Recognition of the decisive role of educational content, ways of organizing educational activities and interaction of participants in the educational process in achieving the goals of personal, social and cognitive development of students;

· Taking into account the individual age, psychological and physiological characteristics of students, the role and importance of activities and forms of communication to determine the goals of education and upbringing and ways to achieve them;

· Ensuring the continuity of pre-school, primary general, basic and secondary (full) general education;

· A variety of organizational forms and taking into account the individual characteristics of each student (including gifted children and children with disabilities), ensuring the growth of creative potential, cognitive motives, enrichment of forms of interaction with peers and adults in cognitive activity;

· Guaranteed achievement of the planned results of mastering the basic educational program of primary general education, which creates the basis for the students to successfully master the new knowledge, skills, competencies, types and ways of activity.

According to requirements for the results of mastering basic educational programs at all levels of general education there are three main blocks (components) of the content of education: personal, metasubject and subject.

Personality component includes…

· Readiness and ability for self-development and personal self-determination;

· The formation of motivation to learn and targeted cognitive activity;

· The existence of a system of value relations reflecting a personal and civic position in activities, social competences, legal consciousness;

· The ability to set goals and build life plans;

· The ability to recognize Russian identity in a multicultural society.

Meta-object component suggests …

· Possession of interdisciplinary concepts;

· The ability to use in educational, cognitive and social practice of universal educational actions (regulatory, cognitive, communicative);

· Independent planning and implementation of educational activities and the organization of educational cooperation with teachers and peers;

· Ability to build an individual educational trajectory.

AT subject component included …

· Skills specific to this subject area;

· Activities for the acquisition, transformation and application of new knowledge in the framework of the school subject in school, project training and social project situations;

· Scientific type of thinking, scientific ideas about key theories, types and types of relationships;

· Possession of scientific terminology, key concepts, methods and techniques.

The federal state educational standards (GEF) of general education in force in Russia today are the main documents governing the content of general education for each of its levels. Individual GEFs have been developed for primary, basic, complete (secondary) general education, and each of them is approved by a separate order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.

At the same time, all GEFs are successive, each of them has the following structure.

I. General provisions.

Ii. Requirements for the results of mastering the main educational program.

Personal results of mastering the main educational program.

Meta-subject results of mastering the main educational program.

Subject results of mastering the main educational program.

Iii. Requirements for the structure of the main educational program.

Iv. Requirements for the implementation of the main educational program.

Documents regulating the content of education are the federal state educational educational standards, curricula, curricula, educational literature.

Syllabus fixes the recommended composition of subjects and the distribution of study time between them. It has the form of a table, in which for each academic subject the number of lessons per week for each year of study is indicated. There are three main types of curricula:

– basic school curriculum (BUP) – the main regulatory document;

– model curricula are BUP variants approved by the Ministry of Education or by the regional department of education (for the national-regional component) and recommended as a planning basis for schools;

– curriculum of an educational institution is a curriculum according to which a particular school works, compiled on the basis of one of the standard plans in compliance with BUP standards.

Educational (educational) program – the normative document, which defines the range of basic knowledge and skills to be mastered in a given academic subject, as well as the sequence of studying topics and the time allotted for their study. Training programs are divided into standard and working. Model programs are approved by the Ministry of Education and are advisory in nature. Workers are the ones for which the school actually works. Work programs are developed on the basis of standard programs and educational standards; they are approved by the pedagogical council of the school.

Training programs consist of the following basic elements:

– an explanatory note, which defines the main goals and objectives of the school subject, its educational and developmental opportunities, as well as the main ideas underlying its construction;

– the content of education (thematic plan with an indication of hours devoted to each topic, as well as the content of the topics studied);

In addition, the educational program usually provides some guidelines for the implementation of the curriculum.

TO educational literature include textbooks, teaching aids and teaching aids. In educational literature, the content of education is revealed in most detail, and also contains recommendations and didactic means to ensure its assimilation.

Textbook – This is the main educational book on a specific discipline, which sets out the system of basic knowledge in accordance with the requirements of the state educational standard, taking into account the peculiarities of the age development of children and the specifics of the teaching methodology of this subject in school. The content of the textbook should fully disclose the model program, and its name should correspond to the title of the subject.

Tutorial – educational book, which is an addition to the textbook. Unlike a textbook, a textbook may not cover all discipline, but only a part of it, including not only generally accepted knowledge and statements, but also not yet confirmed hypotheses, different opinions. Educational materials include anthologies, collections of tasks and exercises, atlases and

Teaching guide – educational publication on the methods of teaching any discipline or part of it. This textbook is addressed to teachers.

The educational programs for which training is conducted are very diverse. There are several reasons for separating programs into types and types.

All programs can be divided into two types: general education programs and vocational education programs. Within each type of program are divided into types of the steps of learning.

General education programs are divided into …

– preschool education programs;

– primary education programs;

– basic education programs;

– full (secondary) education programs;

– programs of additional education.

Among the vocational education programs stand out …

– primary vocational education programs;

– secondary vocational education programs;

– higher professional education programs;

– postgraduate vocational education programs;

– programs of additional professional education.

Educational programs designed for school-age children are divided into typical (approximate) and workers. Model programs are approved by the Ministry of Education and are advisory in nature. Workers are the ones for which the school actually works. Work programs are developed on the basis of standard programs and educational standards; they are approved by the pedagogical council of the school.

Stand out also modified (adapted) educational programs, in terms of content and logic, coincide with the model (exemplary), but compiled with the specific conditions of their implementation.

Educational programs are also divided into the main and supplementary education programs (elective courses, electives, circles and

In turn, programs of additional education may be general developmental, specialized, or professionally oriented. Generally developing educational programs are aimed at solving problems of forming a child’s general culture, expanding its social experience, knowledge about the world and about itself. Specialized programs are aimed at identifying and developing the abilities of children, the formation of knowledge and skills in a particular activity. Professionally oriented help children to decide in the choice of profession.

A special group of educational programs are copyright programs. Author’s programs take into account the requirements of the educational standard, however they may contain a different logic for constructing educational material, non-applied use of the sciences being studied can be directed, be integrative, interdisciplinary (combine, link several academic subjects). Most often, authoring programs are created for elective courses or optional items. Author programs are approved by the pedagogical council of the school and (or) by the program-expert council at the pedagogical university, the management of education.

Stand out also experimental educational programs, a feature of which is the focus on changes introduced in the goals, content and organization of the educational process. Experimental programs help test scientific hypotheses, select the most productive innovative ideas, introduce new forms and methods of teaching.

Another type of educational programs – distance education programs, reflecting the specifics of this method of organizing the educational process.

Some educational programs are interdisciplinary in nature. Among them are the following types:

– complex – combining individual areas, areas, activities;

– integrated – study-oriented students of several industries united by a common idea, a common property (for example, a poly-artistic program);

– modular – consisting of several independent blocks; Each block has integrity, stability, the composition and sequence of blocks in the program may vary.

Educational programs may vary according to the structured presentation of the educational material. There are three main structural methods: linear, concentric and spiral (Fig.


With linear the way material is studied sequentially: from section to section, from topic to topic. Appeal to the previous material is carried out sporadically, as a repetition of the studied to ensure the strength of training or to prepare for the assimilation of a new material.

With concentric the presentation of educational material material of this stage of education in a complicated form is studied in the following stages. In fig. 4. it is shown that the material of each previous topic is included in the next. In this case, topic 1 can be studied, for example, in grade 5, topic 2 – in the 6th, topic 3 – in the 7th, and topic 4 – in the 8th.

Feature spiral the way of presenting the material in the educational program consists in the fact that in a sequential study of the material, key ideas, questions, problems (in the figure, “cross-cutting” topics) are highlighted, which are revealed in the study of various topics, gradually becoming more complex at each new turn of the spiral.

Sometimes as another way of structuring educational material is highlighted ramified way to. The essence of this method is that there are several alternative ways to achieve the educational goal. Thus, an extensive program implies that the student chooses his or her own individual way of learning holistic educational information. Extensive programs are used in training, focused on the independent search for knowledge of students under the guidance of a teacher-consultant (for example, in programmed or distance learning).

Method learning (from the Greek methodos – “the way to achieve the goal”) – a system of consistent interrelated actions of the teacher and students, ensuring the assimilation of educational material.

Method – a multidimensional and multidimensional concept. Each teaching method has many properties and attributes, as a result of which there are many principles of their differentiation. Therefore, in pedagogical science there is no single approach to the selection of teaching methods.

Different authors distinguish the following teaching methods: story, explanation, conversation, lecture, discussion, work with a book, demonstration, illustration, video method, exercise, laboratory method, practical method, test, survey (varieties: oral and written, individual, frontal , compacted), programmed control method, test control, essay, didactic game, etc. This list is far from complete.

In the process of learning, the teacher uses various methods: story, work with a book, exercise, demonstration, laboratory method, etc. It is important to remember that no one method is universal, i.e., a single method will not give the required results in full . Good results in training can be achieved only when using a number of methods that complement each other.

The effectiveness of teaching methods in a particular pedagogical situation depends on the specific goals and objectives of the training. The most important component of pedagogical competence is the ability of the teacher to choose and apply teaching methods correctly.

The choice of teaching methods is due to a number of factors, including:

· Goals of education, upbringing and development of students;

· Features of the content of the studied material;

· Features of the teaching methodology of a particular school subject;

· The time allotted for the study of a material;

· The level of preparedness of students, their age characteristics;

· The level of pedagogical skills of the teacher;

· Material and technical conditions of education.


Training methods in the practice of work are implemented with the help of techniques and learning tools,

Learning techniques (didactic techniques) are usually defined as elements of methods, single actions as part of a general teaching method. Admission is not a method yet, but its integral part, but the practical implementation of the method is achieved precisely with the help of techniques. So, in the method of working with a book, the following techniques can be distinguished: 1) reading aloud; 2) drawing up a text plan; 3) filling in the table on the material read; 4) drawing up a logical scheme of reading; 5) note taking; 6) selection of quotes and

Acceptance of training can be considered as a separate step in the practical application of the method. The sequence of these steps in the implementation of the method and leads to the goal of learning.


The same method in various situations can be carried out using different techniques. For example, working with a book in one case may include reading out loud and drawing up a plan of the text, in another case, drawing up a logical scheme and selecting quotes, in the third case taking notes.

The same technique can be included in different methods. So, drawing up a logical scheme can be part of an explanatory and illustrative method (for example, a teacher explaining a new material, drawing a scheme on a blackboard), and can also be used as part of a research method (for example, students make a scheme reflecting the material they are studying independently).

Teaching methods are developed in the experience of many teachers and improved over decades. Many of the modern methods appeared many centuries ago. For example, the story and exercise were already known in the schools of the Ancient World, and in Ancient Greece, Socrates perfected the method of conversation and began to use it to develop thinking and enhance the cognitive interest of students. Unlike methods, techniques can be created in the experience of an individual teacher, determining the uniqueness of his individual pedagogical style.

There are relatively few methods, there are countless methods, so it is very difficult to classify methods and it is almost impossible to compile a complete, exhaustive list of all didactic methods. In fig.


Classification of teaching methods is complicated by the multidimensionality of the notion “teaching method”, the ambiguity of interpretations of various methods, and the difference in approaches to understanding the learning process. Today there are many classifications of teaching methods, but none of the existing classifications is generally accepted. The most common classifications by learning source (

In the classification of methods by learning source there are three groups of teaching methods:

one) verbal (the source of learning is the word, speech): story, conversation, lecture, work with the book;

2) visual (the source of training is visual means demonstrated by the teacher): demonstration of experiments, natural objects, activity patterns, etc .;

3) practical (the source of training is practical activity): practical and laboratory work, exercise, problem solving, object modeling.

Classification of teaching methods by the nature of the cognitive activity of students includes the following methods:

one) explanatory illustrative (information-receptive) ; the essence of this method lies in the fact that the teacher explains, organizes the perception of educational material in various ways, and students perceive, comprehend, memorize;

2) reproductive : the teacher explains, and the students comprehend, memorize, reproduce, repeat the teaching material many times;

3) problem statement method : the teacher explains the educational material as a solution to the problem: he puts the problem himself and solves it; the students monitor the actions and the train of thought of the teacher, get a sample of reasoning for self-solving problems;

four) partial search (heuristic) : the teacher explains and organizes the search for new knowledge, the students independently reason, solve cognitive tasks under the guidance of the teacher;

five) research : the teacher formulates the problem (sometimes together with the students), in the process of solving the problem helps only in difficult cases or monitors the activities of students, recording their successes and failures; students solve the problem on their own.


It is easy to see that the methods are arranged in order of increasing independence and activity of students: when using the first two methods, knowledge is presented to the student as a finished product. The last two suggest that knowledge is acquired by the student independently. The method of problem presentation in this sense can be considered as a transitional one, preparing students for independent cognitive actions.

AT classification

1) methods of organizing and implementing educational activities:

– by source of learning: verbal, visual, practical;

– according to the logic of learning: inductive (learning is built from particular facts to the identification of general rules and patterns) and deductive (from general laws and rules to recognition and explanation of particular cases of these laws and rules);

– thinking: reproductive (reproducing, based on memorizing educational material) and problem-searching (associated with the acquisition of knowledge by the student);

– management: methods of work under the guidance of a teacher and methods of independent work of students;

2) methods of stimulation and motivation of educational and cognitive activity:

– methods of stimulating and motivating interest in learning;

– methods of stimulating and motivating duty and responsibility in teaching;

3) methods of control and self-control:

– methods of oral control and self-control: frontal or individual survey, the student’s story, reading the text, explanation of the scheme and

– methods of written control and self-control: examination, abstract, presentation, composition, dictation, etc .;

– laboratory and practical (practical and laboratory work) and machine (using special techniques, for example, performing a test on a computer) control and self-control.

Practical application of teaching methods and techniques is possible only if the necessary funds are available. So, a book is necessary for working with a book, for a laboratory method – appropriate laboratory equipment, etc.

Means of education – This is the substantive support of the educational process: material and materialized objects used as tools for the activities of the teacher, as well as information carriers in the educational process. TO material teaching aids include textbooks, visual aids (illustrations, dummies, stuffed animals, collections of minerals, etc.), didactic material, technical teaching aids (TSS), and other equipment used in teaching. Materialized means – it is speech, facial expressions and gestures, as well as various activities (labor, cognitive, communicative, etc.)

Tangible learning tools are otherwise called by didactic means . Didactic means are most often classified according to sensory modality (depending on which sense organs and methods of presenting information their influence on the learning process occurs). On this basis, didactic tools can be divided into visual, audio, audiovisual, simulators and universal.

Tangible learning tools are otherwise called didactic means. Didactic means are most often classified according to sensory modality (depending on which sense organs and methods of presenting information their influence on the learning process occurs). On this basis, didactic tools can be divided into visual, audio, audiovisual, simulators and universal.

TO visual didactic means include the following means of transmitting visual information:

– printed text Means: textbooks and manuals, printed workbooks, dictionaries, reference books;

– simple visuals Means: natural objects, models, models, models, reproductions, tables, charts, diagrams, maps and


– technical (mechanical) visual means: a microscope, a telescope, various types of projectors, a video player, an interactive whiteboard, as well as information carriers used with them (optical disks, slides, transparencies and

Audial means are means of transmitting sound information: recording and reproducing sound equipment, various types of players (tape recorder, CD player and

Audiovisual The means unite the possibilities of transmitting sound and visual information. These include cinema, television and video and web cameras, broadcasting and reproducing equipment (television, movie camera, video and DVD players, etc.), multimedia electronic means (video tutorials and videos used in the educational process).

Simulators – didactic tools that create the conditions for the most efficient practice of practical actions, the formation of skills and abilities. As a rule, simulators are focused on a specific academic subject, on mastering individual skills. Modern simulators are technical means that have become widely used in Russian schools relatively recently. This group of didactic tools includes, for example, language equipment, computer simulators. However, in the educational process, simple (non-technical) simulators have been used for a long time, among which various cards or exercise books are the most common.

Universal didactic means are computer and network information systems (local computer networks and the global Internet). With the ability to connect various equipment and a variety of installed programs, today a computer can be used as a visual, audio or audiovisual tool, as well as a simulator. The compact size of modern computers (laptop, netbook, tablet computer), their reliability and compatibility with other technical means make the computer a convenient and effective learning tool. The use of the Internet in the educational process virtually removes the territorial restrictions on access to information, allowing you to use the resources of the largest electronic libraries and educational portals to organize distance learning at a qualitatively new level.

Along with the above-described approach to the classification of didactic means in educational practice, traditionally stand out …

– technical training tools (TSS);

– visual aids (these include non-textual visual means: natural objects, their images, models, models, models, etc.);

– Handout – compact didactic tools intended for individual use by the student (for example: a collection of minerals, herbaria; a set of parts for drawing or technical drawing; cards with individual tasks);

– didactic material – cards with tasks for individual work, collections of exercises and

– teaching and laboratory equipment – The equipment of educational laboratories for studying natural sciences (physics, chemistry, biology);

– production training equipment – equipment training workshops, which differs from the usual production in that it is made specifically for training purposes, it is more compact, safe and not intended for mass production.

Functions of learning tools due to their didactic properties. In the learning process, learning tools perform four main functions:

· compensatory (training tools facilitate the learning process, help to achieve the goal with the least effort and time);

· adaptive (teaching aids help the teacher adapt the content of education to the age and individual abilities of children, create favorable conditions for learning: help to organize the necessary demonstrations, independent work of students, to differentiate educational tasks and

· informative (teaching aids are either a direct source of information (a textbook, a training video, etc.), or contribute to the transfer of information (blackboard, projection equipment, laboratory equipment, etc.);

· integrative (the use of learning tools allows considering the studied subjects and phenomena in many ways, revealing and observing the various properties of the subject, penetrating deeper into its essence, for example, when studying a law of physics, the use of teaching and laboratory equipment allows observing the effect of this law, understanding its meaning and

Form of study – is a way of organizing the educational process based on the interaction of methods, techniques and means of training. The form reflects the external side of the organization of the educational process. The form contributes to the realization of not one goal (as a method), but a complex of didactic goals.

In theory and practice of education, there are many different forms of education: full-time and part-time, distance, school and out-of-school, individual and mass education, family education and

Among the forms of organization of the educational process stand out forms training sessions. These include a lesson, lecture, seminar, laboratory work, excursion, elective and


Forms of training sessions are divided into basic and additional. At school, the main form of education is a lesson, in high school – a lecture and a seminar.

The lesson is the basic structural unit of the educational process in the modern school. It is characterized by the following features:

a) a permanent composition of teachers working with this class;

b) the subject system of education (a certain academic subject is studied in the lesson);

c) relative structural completeness (the lesson is a complete segment of teaching and learning, in its structure the beginning and end are easily distinguished).

There are many requirements for a modern lesson. General requirements include:

– implementation in each lesson of the main functions of learning: educational, educational, developmental;

– use of the latest scientific achievements and advanced teaching practices in the lesson;

– building a lesson based on the laws of the educational process;

– implementation of the principles of learning in the classroom in their optimal ratio;

– motivation and activation of all spheres of students’ personality;

– the connection of the material under study with the previously studied one, a reliance on this level of development of pupils;

– the establishment of inter-subject relations in the classroom;

– providing conditions for productive activity of students, taking into account their interests, inclinations, needs, abilities;

– logic of all stages of the lesson and emotionality;

– effective use of material and materialized teaching aids;

– the connection of educational material and work on the lesson with life, with the personal experience of students, with production activities;

– the development of children’s ability to learn, learning their rational methods of thinking and activity;

– the formation of the need for children to constantly replenish the volume of knowledge, acquire new skills and abilities; formation of the need for self-development;

– diagnostics, prediction, careful lesson planning.

One of the general requirements for a lesson is the presence of a triple didactic goal (TDC), including educational, educational and developmental tasks that are correlated with the main functions of learning.

The implementation of all three functions of learning in each lesson is achieved by observing a set of requirements that reflect the educational, educational and developmental functions.

Educational requirements include:

– a clear definition of the educational objectives of each lesson;

– rational selection of information for the lesson, optimization of the content of education, taking into account the personal and age characteristics of students;

– rational combination of various forms and methods of education;

– creative planning of the lesson structure;

– a combination of individual, group and collective forms of education;

– providing feedback on the lesson, control of mastering educational material, pedagogical management of students’ learning and cognitive activity;

– use of new achievements of pedagogical science and new educational technologies.

The educational requirements for the lesson include:

– determination of educational opportunities of educational material and organization of students’ activities;

– the formulation of educational tasks that are really achievable, logically following from the goals and content of this lesson;

– the formation of vital qualities: discipline, responsibility, accuracy, independence, collectivism, perseverance, etc .;

– attentive and sensitive attitude to students, pedagogical tact, cooperation with students and interest in their success.

Developmental requirements include:

– the formation and development of positive motives among students of educational and cognitive activity, interests, activity and creative initiative;

– development of attention, memory, thinking, feelings and emotions;

– studying and accounting for the individual characteristics of students, stimulating new qualitative changes in their development.

In addition to general requirements for the lesson, there are psychological, organizational, managerial, sanitary and other requirements.

Each lesson takes a certain place in the system of teaching this subject in this class in this variant of the curriculum. In other words, the value of a single lesson in the educational process is relatively small if it is “torn out” from the general system of studies. Learning lesson material occurs not only in the classroom, but also in the process of student homework, as well as during consolidation and synthesis in subsequent classes.

Lessons can be classified according to the goals, methods, means of training, etc.

1) the lessons of familiarization with the new material;

2) lessons of consolidation of the studied;

3) lessons of generalization and systematization;

4) the lessons of the formation of skills;

5) control lessons (examination of knowledge and skills);

6) combined lessons (including elements of previous types).

Lesson structure – This is a certain sequence of its stages, each of which is different in the nature of the tasks to be solved, in the peculiarities of the activity of the teacher and the students, in the emotional mood.

Some stages may be present at all lessons (stages of communication of the topic and tasks of the lesson, learning motivation, homework explanations, summing up), other stages reflect the specifics of a particular type of lessons (stages of control tasks, summarizing and systematizing knowledge, etc.).

Each type of lesson has its own structure, contributing to the achievement of the goal and corresponding to the place that this lesson occupies in the lesson system (for example, the consolidation lesson is possible only if the previous lesson has already learned new material, and the lessons of generalization and systematization are usually planned as preparatory before lessons control).

The lesson of acquaintance with a new material necessarily includes the following stages: 1) repetition of previously studied material, which is the basis for learning a new one; 2) explanations of a new material and work with a textbook, teaching aids; 3) verification of understanding (of how students understood the new material) and the primary consolidation of the studied.

Structural features of the consolidation lesson are manifested in the following stages: 1) homework check; 2) exercise (oral and written); 3) check the implementation of exercises.

The obligatory stages for any lesson are the organizational beginning of the lesson (other names: organizational stage, organizational moment) and summing up at the end of the lesson.

Along with traditional lessons in the learning process, additional forms of teaching are used: pupils’ homework, as well as excursions, extra classes, consultations, training conferences, school lectures, seminars, workshops. Additional forms of training can be attributed, and quite common in school practice non-standard lessons.

Non-standard lesson – this is a training lesson with a non-traditional structure (

The lesson-game is based on the technology of didactic games.

Lesson-competition. According to the purpose and place in the lesson system, this is most often a lesson of generalization and systematization; the essence of the lesson is that students compete in knowledge, skills and abilities acquired while studying a topic or section.

Lesson auction. This form is usually used in repetition, the lesson is constructed as a kind of quiz; Questions, assessments or items of symbolic value can be “sold” (for example, the reproduction of a painting is given to a student who has paid the highest price for it – who answered the most questions about a painting and created its artist).

An integrated lesson is an interdisciplinary lesson that combines several study subjects, for example: 1) drawing, geography and geometry; 2) art, history, literature, music.

Binary lesson – a lesson conducted by two teachers who teach different subjects. This is usually an introductory or review lesson. For example, teachers of art and history hold a lesson about an era.


A variety of forms of education is one of the most important requirements for a modern lesson. In terms of student enrollment, frontal, individual and group forms of education are distinguished.

With frontal training the teacher manages the activities of all the pupils at the same time working on the solution of a single learning task, organizing the cooperation of the students and determining the same pace of work for all. Frontal forms allow you to conduct mass training, save lesson time, for example, when explaining, instructing, demonstrating, addressing them at once to all students. However, frontal work does not allow to take into account individual differences of students, applying frontal training, the teacher has to focus on the average student. As a result, weak students do not maintain the proposed mastering rate, and strong students are bored of doing nothing.

The disadvantages of front-end training in the classroom are compensated by individual forms work. Individual training is also an independent performance by students of the same tasks for the whole class (exercises, homework, independent and examinations and

Feature group forms learning is that the teacher controls the learning and cognitive activities of groups of students in the class. At the same time, pedagogical management is carried out not only directly, but also indirectly – through student leaders (commanders, foremen, team leaders). Training groups can be formed …

– as a group of constant composition (link form);

– as temporary, formed specifically to perform a specific task (brigade form);

– as groups that perform their part of the work in common for several groups of task (cooperative-group form);

– as groups that unite students with the same learning opportunities (group-differential form).

Group work also includes work in pairs.

Homework allows students to more effectively consolidate knowledge, improve the skills and abilities obtained in the lesson, develop their independent work skills and prepare them for self-education, develop a sense of responsibility, develop accuracy, assiduity and other socially valuable qualities. The main fundamental difference between homework and classroom work is that it proceeds without the direct guidance of the teacher, albeit on his instructions. When doing homework, the student himself chooses the time and pace of assignments, he is deprived of the help of a teacher and the support of his comrades, there is no student team at home that has a beneficial effect on creating a working mood, makes the work more interesting.

Based on the didactic goals, there are three types of homework:

· Preparing for the perception of a new material;

· Aimed at consolidating knowledge, developing skills and abilities;

· Requiring the use of acquired knowledge in practice (in this type of homework, a special group consists of creative tasks: writing essays, presentations, abstracts; making drawings, handicrafts, visual aids, etc.)

A class-based learning system has many advantages over others. But it, like any strictly regulated system, has a drawback: the monotony of forms, even if rational, tires students, often turns learning into boring routine work. Therefore, in addition to the lessons in school, extracurricular (auxiliary, non-obligatory for visiting) forms of organization of the pedagogical process are practiced, bringing to the organization of the cognitive activity of students much-needed entertaining and diversity.

Among the extracurricular forms there are two large groups:

1) permanent (electives, clubs, sports clubs, interest clubs, etc.);

2) episodic (subject Olympiads, contests, exhibitions, quizzes and

Permanently acting forms of after-hour work are carried out as a system of occupations. Episodic – as single episodes of the pedagogical process.

Overtime work on any subject is an important component of the school educational process, significantly influencing the final result of training and education of schoolchildren. In the methodological literature, extracurricular work on the subject is considered as a strictly thought-out and comprehensively implemented system of educational and educational activities of various forms and content.

Overtime work is multifunctional. When properly carried out, it not only contributes to the deepening of knowledge and development of students’ interest in the subject, but also has a nurturing effect on them, develops creative activity, helps the teacher to identify gifted children, to fully implement an individual and differentiated approach to learning.

Overtime work on the subject should be a logical continuation of the lesson in the sense that it, like the lesson, is an important link in the unified system of instruction provided by the teacher at school. When developing every extracurricular activity or lesson, the teacher must clearly understand his place in this system. But the most important thing in organizing extracurricular work on the subject is how to organize communication, how to interest schoolchildren, wake up and stimulate their imagination and initiative.

Psychological, pedagogical and methodical literature devoted to various issues of extracurricular educational and cognitive activity of schoolchildren notes its potential in shaping humanistic relations among students, in enhancing cognitive activity, in arming with self-development skills, and in developing creative abilities. Such a wide range of effective pedagogical interaction teacher – student outside the lesson is due to the unregulated nature of communication, allowing the teacher to create various situations of success for schoolchildren, that is, to enable everyone to express themselves in the most appropriate field of activity for him.

Among the principles of the organization of extracurricular work on the subject, in addition to general teaching, are the principles:

· The relationship of extracurricular work with lessons;

· Voluntary participation of schoolchildren in extracurricular activities;

· Entertaining in the content and forms of organization of extracurricular work;

· Equality (

These principles are interconnected, only their comprehensive compliance ensures success.

Types of training determined as a result of the separation of a variety of educational processes for any reason. Different types of studies are highlighted in various scientific studies and pedagogical textbooks (Fig.


Consider some types of training.

The first type of systematic teaching in history was used by the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates and was given the name Socratic conversation. The essence of the Socratic conversation is to find the truth by asking leading questions. The teacher-philosopher stimulated the student’s cognitive interest with his questions and, arguing, led the student’s thought along the path of knowledge. Socratic conversations were focused on individual training or working with a small group of students who initially showed an interest in knowledge.

The first type of organization of training a large group of students – dogmatic training – Widespread in the Middle Ages. The purpose of such training is the assimilation of book knowledge, their acceptance as immutable truths (dogma – position taken on faith, recognized as indisputable without any evidence). The task of the students was to correctly reproduce ready-made truths. The main activities of the students were hearing and rote learning through repeated repetitions. The main teaching tools were religious books that were written in Latin (therefore, the training was usually also conducted in Latin). Dogmatic learning is characterized by the isolation of knowledge from life, the forms of learning from its content.

In the XVII century. in Europe, dogmatic change has come explanatory illustrative learning. This type of training is based on the theory of sensationalism – knowledge through sensory perception (F. Bacon, J. Locke, etc.). The founder of explanatory and illustrative learning –

In the XIX century. begins to form developmental education, the appearance of which is associated with the name teacher of German teachers A. Disterweg. The main goal of developmental education is to prepare the student for independent learning, for the search for truth, for independence of judgment in everyday life. Although the idea of ​​organizing an independent search for truth by a student is already traced in the Socratic conversation, it was Disterweg who first formulated the rules of developmental education. He considered the developmental form of learning to be the most effective, assessing its capabilities much higher than explanatory and illustrative learning (his statement “A bad teacher gives truth, and a good one teaches it to find.” In the 20th century, developmental education is enriched with psychological knowledge about the patterns of personal development. So , ideas about the possibilities of developmental education have significantly expanded due to the


The basis of developmental education is productive (

Another type of training – programmed training – appeared in the 1950s-1950s Its founder is an American psychologist B. Skinner. Programmed learning is based on the cybernetic approach, according to which.

– learning is viewed as a complex dynamic system;

– the system is controlled by sending commands to the student (directly by the teacher or using technical means) and receiving feedback (

– Information obtained through feedback is evaluated by the teacher (assessment) and the student himself (self-assessment).

Principles of programmed learning:

• submission of information in small easily digestible doses;

• setting a verification task to monitor and evaluate the assimilation of each dose of information;

• presentation of a response for self-control;

• formulation of further instructions depending on the correctness of the answer.

In programmed training, two structural methods of program construction are used: linear and branched. Under the linear program, students work on all portions of educational information as they become available. An extensive program implies that the student chooses an individual way of learning holistic educational information.

The types of training that exist for quite a long time have been formed as a system of interrelated forms, methods, techniques and means of training.

Education system – this is a holistic unity of interrelated and interacting forms, means, methods and techniques of organizing the educational process.

Today in the world, the classroom and lecture and seminar systems of education are the most common, their history goes back more than 400 years. And although in the XIX – XX centuries. the very well-known Bell-Lancastrian, Batavian, Mannheim systems were created, as well as training systems according to the project method, according to Dalton-Plan, Trump’s plan, etc., yet they were not as widely used as class-teaching and lecture-seminar.

Finally, besides the generally accepted training systems, there are copyright systems created on the basis of the original idea or the author’s concept.

In the world, the most widely-used classroom education system. Her invention in the XVII century made a real revolution in education, which allowed one teacher to train a significant number of children at the same time. The idea of ​​such an organization of the educational process was first implemented by I. Sturm, and developed its theoretical foundations and embodied it in mass practice.

Signs of the class-study system of training:

– class (constant for the entire time of study the composition of students of about the same age and level of preparedness);

– training planning (the class works according to a single plan);

– a lesson (the learning process is carried out in the lessons – interconnected by the same duration parts of the general training system);

– monism (in the lesson one subject is studied by all children);

– the schedule (the established alternation of lessons of different subjects and changes for rest);

– pedagogical management (the learning process is managed by the teacher);

– the variability of activities (during the lesson the teacher organizes various types of cognitive activity of students).

The main advantages of the class-less system are its comparative cheapness and rather high quality of results in mass practice. Advantages are achieved thanks to the precise organization of the educational process, ensuring its orderliness and relative ease of managing it, thanks to the systematic and sequential training, the constant interaction of students with the teacher and each other in the learning process. However, the class-lesson system, as compared to individual training, has several disadvantages, for example: the teacher has to focus mainly on the “average” student, and the student – to work in the classroom at the same pace for all. This circumstance has caused numerous attempts to improve it, which continues in our time.

Lecture and seminar system of training is traditional for universities. Its development begins with the appearance of the first universities.

The first mention of lectures as the main form of education in medieval universities belong to the XII – XIII centuries. Initially, the lecture consisted in reading the text (before the books became a publicly accessible source of information, mass readings were considered the most effective and cheap way of disseminating “book knowledge”). The reading was accompanied by comments, explanations from the teacher. Over time, the presentation of the material at the lectures became freer, the professors tried not only to read other people’s texts, but also to present the lecture material in free form, to include in it own conclusions, the results of new research, not yet described in the books.

Modern lecture is conducted by a teacher who has high qualifications in this scientific field (professor or associate professor). The basis of the content of educational material is not only educational literature, but also scientific publications, materials of the latest research, as well as current events of scientific and public life. In the organization of lectures, various methods, techniques and teaching aids are used to better identify the properties of the objects and phenomena under consideration, to systematize theoretical information, to help students in their independent cognitive activity. Thus, today the expression “to give a lecture” is just a steady turn of speech, since in fact qualified teachers have long since gone from simply reading texts throughout the entire lecture lesson.

Along with lectures, in medieval universities were held disputes – forms of discussion, scientific debate (as a rule, on philosophical and theological topics). It was believed that by participating in disputes, students sharpen the mind and improve knowledge. Discussion of theoretical and applied issues in disputes can be considered a prototype of modern seminars.

If to compare with the medieval dispute, the seminar is a more universal form. At the seminar, students make presentations and reports, ask each other questions, participate in the discussion of scientific and practical aspects of the material studied. In addition, at the seminar, the teacher can organize a discussion, conduct monitoring, clarify incomprehensible or controversial issues, use various ways to enhance the cognitive activity of students (brainstorming, business game, various types of group work and

In contrast to the lesson, the seminar assumes a much greater student autonomy. For example, the students themselves choose and structure the material for the report, using various sources (the teacher only recommends sources and gives advice).

A lecture can be held at once in a large audience (100 or more people) for a whole stream of students. In the stream, all students studying this discipline or its section can be combined, even if they are studying in different specialties. The seminar is held in an academic group (usually 15-25 people) or a subgroup (if the group is large or for the development of the material individualization of training is necessary).

The lecture-seminar system implements the continuity between the material studied in lectures and seminars, as well as other general teaching principles of learning. Along with lectures and seminars, a lecture-seminar training system may include practical exercises, laboratory work, and other types of training sessions.

The features of the lecture-seminar system, in comparison with the class-lesson, are clearly presented in fig.

In the late XVIII – early XIX centuries. in England, industry developed rapidly. At the same time for industrial enterprises constantly lacked skilled workers and employees. The problem was found by a priest Andrew Bell (1753 – 1832) and teacher Joseph lancaster (1776 or 1778 – 1838), who independently proposed a similar idea of ​​organizing education (they were at that time in different parts of the world: Lancaster in England, and Bell in India, which then was an English colony). The training system they created was named after them. bell lancaster.

Both sought to come up with how to teach many people at the same time. By that time, the class-less system was already known in Europe for a long time, however, the need for competent workers was so acute that even class-study instruction did not allow it to be satisfied quickly enough, because there were very few teachers too. Therefore, Bell and Lancaster offered to teach “stepwise”, combining the work of students under the guidance of a teacher with mutual learning.

This was implemented as follows. In the first half of the school day, the teacher worked with a group of senior or most capable students (they began to be called monitors), and in the second half of the day these students taught the others what they had learned from the teacher. Each monitor was assigned a dozen students. While the monitors worked with the majority of students, the teacher carried out general management: he watched the course of the classes and helped if someone from the monitors could not cope himself.

Of course, with the Bell-Lancaster organization of the educational process, the quality of education was generally low. Therefore, she had a lot of opponents, she criticized

At the beginning of the XIX century, the Bell-Lancaster system was widely used in France, Belgium, as well as in North America and in the English colonies, as a simple and cheap way of spreading literacy and the Christian religion. In Russia, the bell-Lancaster system used the Decembrists to train peasants and soldiers (

At the end of the XIX century in developed European countries, the main system of education was class-time. However, it was at this time that teachers began to seriously think about how to overcome its main drawback caused by the work of the entire class at one pace – the focus of the educational process on the average student. Among the options for the modernization of class-lesson training at this time are the most famous Mannheim and Batavian systems.

Mannheim education system appeared in Germany (the city of Mannheim). Its founder is Josef Zikkinger (1858 – 1930), who proposed dividing pupils of national (primary) schools into classes not only by age and level of preparedness obtained at the previous stage of education (as in the classical class-lesson system), but also by abilities. This idea was realized in the reform of the public schools of Mannheim carried out by him.

According to Zikkinger, four types of classes were created at school:

– classes for children with ordinary abilities;

– classes for capable children, designed for an increased level of education (with the study of foreign languages, to prepare for the further transition to secondary school and

– classes for low-performing students;

– classes for mentally retarded students.

Education in these classes was based on the class-lesson system, taking into account the general features of the whole class. This made it possible not to reform a well-functioning system, maintaining a single learning pace, while significantly increasing its effectiveness due to the fact that, as a result of special selection, all students in the class were average (those who differed from the average level were determined to another class, where they also became “average”).

Critics of the Mannheim system noted its following shortcomings.

1. The unreliability of methods for selecting children for training in different types of classes. Pupils were divided into classes based on teacher observations, psychometric studies and exams. Given that the method of observation is very subjective, and the psychometric techniques were then imperfect, there was a high probability of an erroneous assessment of the abilities of the child.

2. Securing the student status corresponding to the class in which he got in the selection. It was believed that children, depending on their success, could be transferred to another type of class, but in fact the translation procedure was not developed. This led to the fact that the child, hitting a particular type of class, remained in the same class until the end of training.

However, these shortcomings were overcome in the process of further development of the Mannheim system: more objective methods of student selection appeared, the reliability of psychometric research increased, pedagogical and legal aspects of transferring students to other types of classes were developed based on their academic achievements.

At present, elements of the Magneym system are present in various systems of differentiated education (for example: profile classes and correction classes in modern schools, the division of a class into groups for learning different foreign languages).

In 1898 in the town Batavia (USA, New York) the local school was so crowded that 53 pupils were studying in one of the classes. Because of the numerous immigrants and immigrants, this was a typical problem of American schools of the late XIX – early XX centuries. The situation was complicated by the heterogeneity of the composition of students, among whom were representatives of different cultures, nationalities and religious denominations. It is unlikely that things were the worst in the provincial Batavia, but it was here that the school inspector John kennedy began to use the new training system, which in 1914 described in the book Batavian system of individual instruction.

In the Batavian system, the learning process is divided into two parts:

1) lessons taught with the whole class;

2) individual lessons (assisting those who are lagging behind in their studies or working with capable students who are ahead of their classmates in their development).

In other words, in Batavia, classroom-study training was supplemented with individual lessons, which were also conducted not on a case-by-case basis, but as part of a general system of academic work, where both parts became one.

To work with those lagging behind in overcrowded classes, several other teachers were invited to the school, who became assistant teachers leading the lessons. In the implementation of individual work with the lagging behind, the teacher or his assistant was guided by three rules:

1) not to inform the student of new knowledge, but to track what he knows;

2) not to do educational tasks for the student, but to see what he is doing;

3) do not anticipate the material studied in the lesson.

In classes with normal occupancy, there could be one teacher, dividing his work time between teaching lessons and individual lessons. According to the plan of J. Kennedy, the teacher spent about five lessons a week with the class, and the rest of the time he provided individual counseling for the students.

These innovations have greatly improved the learning process. In the Batavian system of training, a lagging student could work at a pace more convenient for himself, overcoming the lag due to individual lessons. Teachers, on the other hand, did not have to “tear apart” in overcrowded classes. In addition, it turned out that such an organization of educational and cognitive activity better contributes to the development of the individual qualities of the child.

The Batavian teaching system showed high efficiency at the beginning of the 20th century, however, the idea of ​​combining lessons with individual lessons is not outdated even today, it finds application in many modern learning technologies.

Project Training System originated in the United States in the late XIX – early XX century. (Perhaps, today its second name is more often used: project method).

The exact date of commencement of the application of project training is not easy to establish. Its founders are most often called American educators. John Dewey (in the project method implemented instrumental pedagogy, developed by J. Dewey) and William H. Kilpatrick (he owns the first detailed description of this training system).

The key idea of ​​the project training system is to ensure greater independence of students in the educational process.

For this purpose, the practical activity of students was organized without the use of class-class forms of education. Practical activities were carried out within the framework of educational projects, which were a complex of actions: pupils themselves had to set a goal, plan and carry out work related to the acquisition of new knowledge and skills. Educational and cognitive activity was built around projects, and not around a system of training sessions or a single curriculum.

Initially, the themes of the projects were determined only by the industrial or domestic purpose of the acquired knowledge and skills. Subsequently, the projects became more diverse, among them were the following types:

– projects that serve the manufacture of something;

– projects in which something is spent or can be acquired;

– problem solving projects;

– knowledge-oriented projects.

The system of project training as an alternative to the class-less system did not stand the test of time. And the reason for this was the same as that of the dalton-plan: the decline in the role of the teacher and the lack of a detailed curriculum turned into a deterioration in the results of training and education. However, the very idea of ​​organizing educational project work for the development of students’ cognitive independence has been successfully applied to this day. It is implemented in the technology of project training, integrated into the classroom system (for example, in one lesson there is a development of project tasks, in the other – project protection, and between the lessons, students develop a project). In addition, project training is used in the organization of extracurricular work.

In 1905, a system of individualized education appeared, the author of which is an American teacher Elena Parkhurst. A new way of planning and organizing the educational process is called dalton plan, since it was first used in schools in Dalton (Massachusetts). Other Dalton-plan titles: the laboratory system, the workshop system – speak for themselves. The organization of the educational process proposed by E. Parkhurst immediately caught the eye of the main difference from the class-lesson system: the main educational work was carried out not in the classroom during the lesson, but individually in laboratories, workshops, classrooms, libraries.

The purpose of training according to Dalton-plan was the organization of individual study work with maximum consideration for the characteristics of each student.

In the dalton-plan there was no explanation for the teacher of the new material. The role of the teacher was to organize the work of students and provide them with the necessary assistance.

The class as a group of students remained, but there were no lessons in the usual sense. Collective work with the participation of the entire class was given only one hour a day, the rest of the time the children had to do individually, performing tasks developed by the teacher. For this, students’ workplaces were staffed with the necessary teaching aids, instructions for studying theoretical material and fulfilling educational tasks.

There was no general lesson plan. Training programs were divided into a number of tasks by months with an indication of the timing of their implementation.

Accounting for the implementation of educational tasks was carried out in individual student cards and a summary table of the class.

The desire to individualize the learning process, of course, refers to the main advantages of learning according to Dalton Plan. This made the new learning system very popular all over the world. For its implementation, many methodological techniques have been developed, which even today are used to individualize the educational process and enhance learning and cognitive activity. The Dalton Plan became the basis for the development of a number of other training systems, such as the brigade-laboratory method.

An example of a formal operational phase

However, learning from Dalton-plan also revealed deficiencies that were caused by the decline in the role of the teacher and the student team in the educational process and led to a decrease in the level of training. This led to the fact that the popularity of Dalton-plan after two decades of its active distribution began to decline.

In Soviet schools in the 1920s. The teaching system, called the brigade-laboratory method or the brigade-laboratory training system, has become popular.

The brigade lab method was a type of dalton plan. Its peculiarity was the combination of the collective work of the whole class with brigade and individual work. The brigade was called part of the class – a group of several people. The brigade form was not envisaged in the dalton-plan, which was the main difference between the brigade-laboratory training system and the training according to the dalton-plan.

When using a brigade-laboratory system of training in general classes, work was planned, tasks that were distributed among the teams were discussed, and deadlines and a mandatory minimum of work were set. Then, each brigade worked on the assignment for which the leader, the brigadier, reported to the teacher.

This training system had the same drawbacks as the Dalton Plan: reducing the role of the teacher in explaining the new material led to a decrease in the level of training of students. In addition, the brigade form of work was often used not in addition to the individual, but instead, which had a bad effect on the students’ personal responsibility (one person could do the training task, and the rest could get grades without doing any work).

As a result, in the early 1930s. Soviet schools again switched to the pre-revolutionary class-study system of education, and the use of the brigade-laboratory method was limited.

Currently, the Russian schools have preserved elements of brigade-laboratory training: in the classroom, brigade uniform is used to organize group work for students, and the brigade-laboratory method is used in extracurricular work.

Training according to the Trump plan became widespread in the 1950s and 1960s. Its author is an American professor, Lloyd Trump, who offered to teach schoolchildren in a system that was an original modification of the lecture and seminar system.

Lecture and seminar system is traditionally used in universities and allows you to combine classes in large classrooms (100 or more people) with classes in small groups (10-25 people). For school, it was adapted as follows. All study time was divided into three types of academic work.

1. Classes with large groups – lectures that were read at once for 100-150 people by the most qualified teachers using modern technical means. 40% of study time was devoted to these classes.

2. Classes in small groups (10-15 people) were devoted to a deeper study of individual topics. The knowledge gained at the lecture deepened and the ability to put it into practice was acquired. In small groups, various forms of organization of educational activities were used: seminars, discussions, workshops. Classes in small groups were conducted by ordinary teachers or their assistants from among the students or the best students. These classes took up 20% of the study time.

3. Individual work in laboratories, workshops, specially equipped classrooms, libraries and

The introduction to the school plan Trump abolished the classroom system. The composition of small groups is constantly changing, depending on the interests of students. In the choice of individual work, the student was also given freedom.

According to Trump’s plan, his system was to organize individual training at a high scientific and theoretical level (this was just what was lacking in other popular American training systems: Dalton Plan and the project method). However, in the practical implementation of the level of scientific knowledge, given in lectures, often did not find further continuation in other classes. Freedom of students in choosing the content of education and methods of learning activities led to the fact that many students could not decide in their own educational interests, which negatively affected the quality of education. Therefore, Trump’s plan did not take root in the world practice of mass schools. Separate experimental schools are now working on this system, and in the mass practice of teaching only some of its elements have been consolidated (for example, conducting non-standard lessons in the form of lectures and seminars, the introduction of a lecture and seminar system in senior specialized classes as a way of preparing for university studies).

Any author’s training system is based on the original idea, the author’s concept, which has significant differences from mass practice. In contrast to the learning systems discussed above, the authoring systems are not only associated with a specific name (the names of many developers of mass learning systems are also known), but also reflect a unique author’s experience, personal characteristics of an educator-author, and specificity of specific conditions of use. Therefore, authoring systems, as a rule, are difficult to accurately copy and replicate. However, the essential features of a particular authoring system often become the basis for creating new teaching systems in mass practice.

For example, the system of class-lesson training, applied by I. Sturm in the middle of the XVI century. in the Strasbourg Protestant gymnasium, and today can be called the author, because it has not been developed in mass pedagogical practice in the form in which it was created (namely, as a system of academic learning in Latin). But the classroom system existing in our time was originally developed.

According to the degree of localization of use, the author’s learning systems can be divided into.

general edictive authoring systems – not localized by one subject area, which are used in teaching various subjects (for example, the well-known systems

privately owned authoring systems that operate within the framework of teaching one school subject or one educational area (for example, training systems

On a quantitative basis (scale, number of authors and covered participants in the pedagogical process) stand out.

individual authoring systems – implemented in the individual activities of a teacher (examples of such systems are the above authoring systems);

author systems implemented by the teaching staff (the most illustrative examples of such systems are the author’s schools).

Author’s schools – educational institutions whose activities are based on original (copyright) ideas and technologies and represent a new educational practice (

Common features of copyright schools:

· Innovativeness (the presence of the original author’s ideas concerning the change in the pedagogical process);

· Alternativeness (difference of any components of the educational process from the traditional, adopted in the mass school;

· Conceptuality (awareness and use in the author’s model of the educational process of scientific grounds);

· Systematic and comprehensive pedagogical process (not separate isolated innovations, but a single system of innovations in a given school);

· Social and pedagogical expediency (compliance of the goals of the school with the requirements of society);

· Reality and efficiency (the possibility of obtaining good results in real-life conditions).

The author’s schools may include the experience of a number of innovative teachers. Thus, the pedagogical staff of the secondary school of Azov under the guidance of

Another example of the author’s school is the school of adaptive education (adaptive school), theoretically grounded and implemented on the basis of the 109th school of Moscow.

Adaptation of the school to the child is achieved by the system of differentiation of the educational process, which provides for a variety of levels and options for the content of education. A variety of educational programs of the adaptive school are built on the basis of state educational standards. The idea of ​​differentiation (separation) of training according to the level of development of students is implemented in the form of three training streams, “trajectories”:

1) the trajectory of the educational standard;

2) the trajectory of an advanced (lyceum-gymnasium) education;

3) the trajectory of compensatory education (for children in need of correction).

All trajectories are built vertically from the first to the last year of study. Adaptation of a child to school is ensured by recognition of his subject, work in close contact with his family, a complex of socio-economic and psychological and pedagogical support of the family and childhood.

1. What is the subject of didactics?

2. What is the bilateral nature of the educational process?

3. What is the difference between educational and cognitive activity from “just educational” and “simply cognitive”?

4. Prove the need to implement in training its basic functions: educational, educational and developmental.

5. What are the patterns of the educational process?

6. Name the principles of learning.

7. How are the laws and principles of education related?

8. What is the common feature of modern didactic concepts?

9. Compare different didactic concepts, highlighting their differences from each other.

10. What is a government educational standard called?

11. How are the concepts of method, method, means and form of education interconnected?

12. What teaching methods are distinguished by the nature of learning and cognitive activity?

13. What teaching methods are distinguished by the source of training?

14. In which groups can the learning tools be divided?

15. Give examples of the relationship method, method and means of training.

16. What forms of organization of training classes do you know?

17. What are the main forms of organization of educational activities used in the training session?

18. What are the similarities and differences between the class-lesson and lecture-seminar learning systems?

19. Give examples of different types of training.

20. Highlight features of the Bell-Lancaster, Mannheim and Batavian learning systems.

21. What is the general lack of training for dalton-plan, project and brigade-laboratory training?

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