Allergic bronchitis is a type of inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchi. A characteristic feature of the disease is that, unlike conventional bronchitis, which occurs against the background of exposure to viruses and bacteria, the allergic is formed against the background of prolonged contact with various allergens. This disease is often diagnosed in children of preschool and primary school age. It is for this reason that it must be cured as quickly as possible. Otherwise, it assumes a chronic course that can lead to the development of asthma.
The main symptoms of allergic bronchitis in a child or an adult are a strong paroxysmal cough, the appearance of characteristic noise and whistle when inhaling, shortness of breath. Depending on the form of the disease, sputum may occur. Often, the first signs of this disorder are observed in early childhood, when a baby comes in contact with an allergen. With the exclusion of an aggressive substance, the expression of signs stops.
The diagnosis of this disease is based on the consultations of specialists from several fields of medicine, in particular, an allergist and a pulmonologist. Instrumental examinations of patients include radiography and bronchoscopy. Laboratory analyzes of sputum and skin allergy tests are also required. The treatment of an illness is complex and consists of taking medications, physiotherapy, physical therapy courses and therapeutic massage.
The main cause of allergic bronchitis in children and adults is the penetration of allergens through the inhaled air, which further settle on the bronchial mucosa. Experts believe that in addition to plant pollen and pet hair, the causative agents of this disease can be:
- detergent components;
- dust in the apartment or at work;
- separate food product;
- bacterial allergen.
During diagnosis, hereditary predisposition to allergies is often detected. It often happens that on the background of the usual allergic bronchitis an obstruction develops – obstruction of the respiratory canal from the pharynx to the bronchi. Depending on the cause of the formation of the disease, the manifestation or exacerbation of symptoms can be observed at a certain time of the year.
There is a classification of allergic bronchitis in adults and children, depending on the presence and degree of symptoms:
- atopic – characterized by the rapid development of an allergic reaction to one or another pathogen, as well as a pronounced manifestation of signs of illness, which are clearly visible during bronchoscopy;
- infectious-allergic – is characterized by a slow manifestation of an allergic reaction and a weak expression of symptoms;
- allergic tracheobronchitis – hypersensitivity to allergens is observed. Examination notes pathological processes in the tracheobronchial tree;
- obstructive – a narrowing or complete overlap of the lumen of the larynx occurs, which leads to oxygen deficiency. In contrast to other forms of the disorder, with this type, the bronchi of small and medium caliber are involved in the disease process.
The treatment of allergic bronchitis of any of the forms of percolation consists in a comprehensive approach.
The main symptom of the disease is a strong dry cough. Other symptoms of allergic bronchitis are:
- difficulty breathing – noise and whitening occur with time during inhalation or exhalation;
- formation of lesions on the skin;
- increased sweating at normal body temperature;
- the occurrence of rhinitis;
- general weakness of the body.
Often, such signs appear rather weakly, but may increase under the influence of an allergen. The illness proceeds long with frequent periods of remission. Allergic tracheobronchitis has the same symptoms.
Allergic bronchitis in children shows almost the same symptoms. Temperature indicators may not exceed the norm, but may significantly increase. In addition, the child becomes more capricious, irritable and lethargic.
Allergic obstructive bronchitis in children and adults is expressed by bouts of intense cough, which often occurs at night. In severe cases, hyperthermia occurs, and cough and sputum become stronger.
Since the disease has many causes, in order to make a correct diagnosis, consultations of several specialists – a pulmonologist and an allergist-immunologist, will be necessary. Diagnostic measures for allergic bronchitis are complex and consist of ascertaining the possible causes of the formation of the disease; in addition, the doctor needs to find out the first time for the expression of symptoms of the disease. This is due to the fact that this pathology can cause bronchial asthma in a child. Equally important in the diagnosis is the examination of the patient, during which an audition is conducted for the presence of noise during inhalation and exhalation.
Instrumental examinations of the child and the adult patient include radiographs of the bronchi, which can be used to determine the extent of the disease. In addition, laboratory blood tests are conducted, which help to establish the causes of the disease. When a large amount of sputum is secreted, it is microscopically examined. After receiving all the test results, the doctor prescribes the tactics of treatment of allergic bronchitis that is individual for each patient.
Disease therapy is based on a comprehensive campaign, which is based on limiting contact with the allergen. What kind of pathogen was the cause of the disease, it turns out with the help of biochemical blood tests and sputum. If a food product has become such a factor, then it is necessary not only to exclude it from the diet of the child or adult, but also to follow a special diet for several months. It is necessary in order to ensure the normal functioning of the immune system.
Depending on the severity of the course of allergic bronchitis, antihistamine medications are prescribed. They can be used in the form of ointments, aerosols, drops or injections. The duration of treatment is approximately seven days.
To reduce the frequency and intensity of cough, it is necessary to strengthen the immune system. This can be achieved by:
- regular moderate exercise;
- proper nutrition, especially in children.
Auxiliary methods of treatment of allergic bronchitis and tracheobronchitis include:
- Exercise therapy;
- therapeutic massage courses;
- folk medicine.
Prevention of allergic bronchitis consists of eliminating contact with an aggressive substance, as well as regular ventilation and wet cleaning of the home. In addition, when the first signs of the disease appear, especially in a child, it is necessary to seek help from specialists. If this is not done on time, and treatment is not started, obstruction or allergic tracheobronchitis may develop, which, in turn, often causes pneumonia.