Acute tracheitis is called the inflammatory process of the mucous membrane of the lower respiratory tract – the trachea. This disease rarely occurs on its own, more often against the background of acute pharyngitis, laryngitis or rhinitis. Tracheitis is characterized by the presence of a specific paroxysmal dry cough, and in some cases with the release of sputum. This disease is widespread, but it is easy to treat.
The cause of acute tracheitis is the ingestion of a specific virus or bacterium into the human body, although the activation of local opportunistic flora can also cause disease. In some cases, H. influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhallis and Streptococcus pneumoniae become the causative agents of this disease. As a rule, the activation of harmful organisms occurs under the influence of some exogenous factor (hypothermia, adverse climate conditions) or an already existing acute respiratory viral disease, influenza, rubella, parainfluenza, scarlet fever or chickenpox. Adverse factors that increase the risk of acute tracheitis are:
· High dust content in the inhaled air;
· Excessively hot climate;
· An extremely cold climate;
· High humidity of inhaled air;
· Smoking, inhalation of tobacco smoke.
The presence of any chronic disease is also an additional risk factor for the development of acute tracheitis.
Symptoms of acute tracheitis
The main symptom of acute tracheitis is cough. At the initial stage of the disease, cough is mostly dry. However, as the disease progresses, sputum production can begin. A characteristic feature of cough with tracheitis is its painful paroxysmalness that occurs after a deep breath. In some cases, coughing attacks may be accompanied by pain in the chest.
Acute tracheitis is generally characterized by a low subfebrile temperature, although in some individual cases the first days of the disease may be accompanied by a strong rise in temperature to the febrile level.
Acute tracheitis does not have a strong intoxication on the body, so the corresponding symptoms are not characteristic of it. However, frequent headaches and sleep disturbances may occur, primarily due to frequent coughing attacks.
To diagnose acute tracheitis can a general practitioner. In some cases, you may need to consult an otolaryngologist. For the diagnosis, the doctor may prescribe a complete blood count, sputum bakposev and laryngotracheoscopy to the patient.
Differential diagnosis of acute tracheitis should be carried out with acute bronchitis, whooping cough, lung cancer and tuberculosis.
There are three main types of acute tracheitis – allergic, infectious and infectious-allergic. Allergic is called tracheitis, triggered by the inhalation of an allergen (for example, plant pollen, industrial dust, or animal dander). Infectious tracheitis, in turn, is divided into viral, bacterial and mixed (viral-bacterial), depending on the causative agent of the disease. The third type – infectious-allergic – is a combination of the first two types, and occurs due to the layering of allergic tracheitis on the infectious.
If you find the main symptom of acute tracheitis, namely paroxysmal cough, it is recommended to immediately consult a doctor for a correct diagnosis. It is important to start treatment at an early stage of the disease in order to prevent the development of complications and the transition of acute bronchitis to chronic. In addition, many other diseases, including tuberculosis, have similar symptoms with tracheitis. Therefore, it is doubly important to consult a specialist for a competent differential diagnosis.
Treatment of acute tracheitis
Treatment of acute tracheitis is usually performed on an outpatient basis. The use of expectorant drugs such as licorice root, glycyram, mucoltin is recommended. Cough suppressants may also be used, for example, synupret, libexin and bronholitin. It is not recommended to combine therapy with expectorant and antitussive agents. In some cases, antihistamine medication may be indicated. With strong heat, paracetamol is indicated.
When tracheitis is running, as well as in order to prevent further downward movement of the infection, antibacterial therapy may be prescribed. Antibiotics such as augmentin, cefazolin, amoxicillin and amoxiclav are commonly used.
The use of mustard plaster and inhalation may be effective as an adjunct to drug therapy.
In the case of acute tracheitis on the background of another disease, it is extremely important first of all to cure the primary disease.
Lack of treatment for acute tracheitis can lead to the progression of the infection and its further descent. This can lead to the development of diseases such as bronchitis and pneumonia, accompanied by a significantly higher fever and a more serious condition of the patient.
In addition, a fairly frequent complication of acute bronchitis is its transformation into a chronic one.
Prevention of acute tracheitis
As prevention of acute tracheitis, it is recommended to avoid hypothermia and not be under the influence of adverse exogenous factors for a long time. It is also recommended to monitor the state of health and avoid complications of ARVI.