Acute otitis media is an inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane of the middle ear cavity. The auditory tube and cells of the mastoid process of the temporal bone can also be involved in the inflammatory process.
The most common causes of otitis media are:
infection by pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria and viruses);
conditions that make it difficult for the auditory tube to open and air to flow into the middle ear;
injuries of the eardrum.
Symptoms of acute otitis media
The main symptoms of acute otitis media are:
swollen lymph nodes;
pain in the ear region.
Symptoms in acute otitis media can be observed from the side of one ear, as well as from both ears.
Often the acute form of otitis media is accompanied by intoxication of the body (fever, weakness). Also, with otitis media, there may be symptoms from other ENT organs as well: nasal congestion, nasal discharge, pain and sore throat.
At the first stage, anamnesis is collected and the patient’s complaints are analyzed. When examining the ear, the doctor notes the presence of changes in the eardrum (the presence of redness, swelling, changes in mobility, breaks). Also in the ear noted the presence of pus. For a thorough examination of the ear, the doctor uses special devices: an otoscope, an otomicroscope or an endoscope.
In case of complicated nasal breathing, an examination of the nasopharynx and the area of the mouth of the auditory tube is necessary. This is done using endoscopic techniques.
With a decrease in hearing and ear congestion, a tuning fork examination is performed. To assess the mobility of the eardrum, tympanometry is performed.
There are several stages of otitis media:
Stage catarrhal inflammation. This is the initial stage of the disease, manifested by pain in the ear, ear congestion, deterioration of general well-being. If no treatment is taken at this stage of the disease, then the disease may turn into a purulent form.
Stage of purulent inflammation. This stage is divided into two stages – pre-perforative and perforative. At the preperforate stage, pus accumulates in the middle ear, while the eardrum remains intact. At the perforated stage of the disease, the eardrum is ruptured due to the high pressure of purulent masses.
Reparative stage. With adequate treatment, the reparative stage of the disease occurs, which is characterized by relief of the inflammatory process in the ear, cessation of discharge from the ear and scarring of the perforations of the eardrum. For some time, the patient may still have some congestion in the ear.
If you have symptoms of the disease, you should consult a otolaryngologist.
Treatment of acute otitis media
In the initial stages of the disease, warming compresses and physiotherapy are indicated. With the development of purulent process to warm the affected ear can not.
If the eardrum is not damaged, the patient is prescribed anesthetic drops that are buried in the ear. In this case, instillation of antibacterial drops is impractical because they do not penetrate through the eardrum.
With perforations of the eardrum, drops are administered with antibiotics. In this case, in any case, do not allow the ingress of toxic to the ear substances and alcohol. This can lead to hearing loss.
Obligatory medications for otitis media are vasoconstrictor agents (sprays) for the nose. If necessary, use painkillers, antipyretics and antimicrobials.
Azimed (azithromycin) – a representative of a new group of macrolide antibiotics – azalides. It has a wide spectrum of action, slows the growth and multiplication of bacteria, and at high concentrations can have a bactericidal effect. Azithromycin penetrates well into the respiratory tract, organs and tissues of the urogenital tract, the skin and soft tissues, because it is prescribed to treat various bacterial infections: pharyngitis and tonsillitis, sinusitis and otitis media, bronchitis and community-acquired pneumonia, migrating erythema, erysipelas, impetigo, urethritis and cervicitis.
In the absence of adequate treatment, acute otitis media can lead to the development of the following complications:
Prevention of acute otitis media
Prevention of otitis media is reduced to the prevention of respiratory diseases, treatment of chronic diseases. For problems with nasal breathing, restoration of nasal breathing is necessary.