How to band your thumb

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PTE

EP

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3.5

maintenance of electrical installations in working condition and their operation in accordance with the requirements of these Regulations, safety rules and other regulatory and technical documents (hereinafter referred to as NTD);

timely and high-quality maintenance, scheduled preventive maintenance, testing, modernization and reconstruction of electrical installations and electrical equipment;

selection of electrical and electrical engineering personnel, periodic medical examinations of workers, conducting briefings on occupational safety and fire safety;

training and knowledge testing of electrical and electrical engineering personnel;

reliability of operation and safety of operation of electrical installations;

labor protection of electrical and electrical engineering personnel;

environmental protection during operation of electrical installations;

accounting, analysis and investigation of violations in the work of electrical installations, accidents related to the operation of electrical installations, and taking measures to eliminate the causes of their occurrence;

submission of reports to the state energy supervision authorities about accidents, fatal, severe and group accidents associated with the operation of electrical installations;

development of job descriptions, production instructions and labor protection instructions for electrical personnel;

completing electrical installations with protective equipment, fire extinguishing means and tools;

accounting, rational use of electrical energy and energy saving measures;

conducting the necessary electrical equipment tests, the operation of lightning protection devices, measuring instruments and electrical energy metering devices;

compliance with the requirements of state energy supervision authorities.

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7.9,

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How to band your thumb

For Consumers, the installed capacity of electrical installations of which does not exceed 10 kVA, an employee who replaces a person responsible for electrical equipment may not be appointed.

Responsible for the electrical equipment and his deputy are appointed from among the leaders and specialists of the Consumer.

If the Consumer has the position of the chief power engineer, the duties of the person responsible for the electrical equipment are, as a rule, assigned to him.

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organize the development and maintenance of the necessary documentation on the organization of the operation of electrical installations;

to organize training, instructing, testing of knowledge and admission to the independent work of electrical personnel;

organize the safe conduct of all types of work in electrical installations, including with the participation of seconded personnel;

ensure timely and high-quality maintenance, scheduled preventive maintenance and preventive testing of electrical installations;

organize the calculation of the needs of the Consumer in electrical energy and monitor its use;

to participate in the development and implementation of measures for the rational consumption of electric energy;

control the availability, timeliness of checks and tests of protective equipment in electrical installations, fire extinguishing equipment and tools;

to ensure the established procedure for admission to operation and connection of new and reconstructed electrical installations;

organize operational maintenance of electrical installations and the elimination of emergency situations;

to ensure verification of compliance of power supply schemes with actual operational ones with a check mark on them (at least once in 2 years); revision of instructions and schemes (at least 1 time in 3 years); control of measurements of indicators of quality of electric energy (at least 1 time in 2 years); advanced training of electrical personnel (at least 1 time in 5 years);

to control the accuracy of the admission of personnel of construction and specialized organizations to work in existing electrical installations and in the security zone of power lines.

The instructions of the person responsible for the electrical equipment should additionally indicate his rights and responsibilities.

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checking of work at idle for at least 5 minutes;

insulation resistance measurement;

check of serviceability of the grounding circuit of power consumers and auxiliary equipment of classes 01 and 1.

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The voltage on the lamps must be no higher than the nominal value. Reducing the voltage of the most distant lamps of the network of internal working lighting, as well as projector installations, should be no more than 5% of the rated voltage; for the most distant lamps of the external and emergency lighting network and in the network of 12-50 V – no more than 10%.

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PTE

EP

V – in electrical installations with voltage higher than 1000 V;

IV – in electrical installations with voltage up to 1000 V.

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The use of lighting networks to connect any portable or mobile power consumers is not allowed.

* The name of electrical receivers (in particular, fixtures) should be stated so that workers, who turn on or off single-positioned or group fixtures, would be able to correctly perform these actions.

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the head of the Consumer and those responsible for electrical equipment – for non-compliance with the requirements stipulated by the Rules and job descriptions;

workers directly servicing electrical installations – for violations that occurred due to their fault, as well as for their incorrect elimination of violations in the operation of electrical installations in the serviced section;

workers carrying out equipment repairs – for disruptions in work caused by poor quality repairs;

managers and specialists of the energy service – for violations of electrical installations due to their fault, as well as due to untimely and unsatisfactory maintenance and failure to perform emergency response measures;

managers and experts of technology services – for violations in the operation of electrical equipment.

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The frequency of inspections determined by local regulations must be approved by the person responsible for the electrical equipment of the Consumer.

Operational personnel are responsible for the correct position of those elements of the relay protection and anti-vibration devices with which it is allowed to perform operations, regardless of periodic inspections by the personnel of the relay protection and anti-radiation systems.

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terminal blocks of current transformers;

covers of transition boxes where there are chains to electric meters;

current circuits of calculated meters in cases when electrical measuring instruments and protection devices are connected to current transformers together with meters;

test boxes with clips for shunting the secondary windings of current transformers and the junction of voltage circuits when the calculated meters are disconnected for their replacement or verification;

grids and doors of chambers where current transformers are installed;

grids or doors of the chambers where fuses are installed on the high and low voltage side of the voltage transformers to which the counters are connected;

devices on the handles of the drives of the voltage transformer disconnectors to which the counters are connected.

In the secondary circuits of voltage transformers to which the counters are connected, the installation of fuses without monitoring their integrity with the action on the signal is not allowed.

The certified settlement counters must have on the fastening of the covers the seals of the organization that carried out the calibration, and on the cover of the terminal block clamps the seal of the power supplying organization.

To protect against unauthorized access to electrical measuring instruments, switching devices and detachable connections of electrical circuits in metering circuits, they must be marked with special visual inspection signs in accordance with established requirements.

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obtain technical conditions in the power supply organization;

execute project documentation;

coordinate project documentation with the energy supplying organization that issued the technical specifications and the state energy supervision authority.

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during the construction and installation of the power facility – intermediate acceptance of equipment and facilities, including hidden works;

acceptance tests of equipment and commissioning tests of individual electrical systems;

comprehensive testing equipment.

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for the compliance of the prepared workplace with the instructions provided for in the attire;

for the presence and safety of grounding, fencing, posters and safety signs installed at the workplace, locking devices of the drives;

for the safety of brigade members in relation to electrical shock of an electrical installation.

An observer may be assigned an employee with group III.

Responsible for the safety associated with the technology of work, is the employee who heads the team, which is part of and must always be in the workplace. His surname is indicated in the line “Separate instructions” of the order.

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Inspection of overhead lines should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of paragraphs.

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Several orders and orders for alternate admission and work on them can be issued to the permitting and the work producer (the observer) at once.

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protect other live parts, located close to the workplace, which may be accidentally touched;

work in dielectric galoshes or standing on an insulating stand or on a rubber dielectric carpet;

use insulated tools (for screwdrivers, except for the tog, the rod must be insulated), use dielectric gloves.

It is not allowed to work in clothes with short or rolled up sleeves, and also to use handsaws, files, metal meters and

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Permission to extend the work order can be transferred by telephone, radio or courier, responsible manager or work producer, who in this case, with his signature, specifies in his outfit the name and initials of the employee who has extended the work order.

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Emergency work, which requires more than 1 hour to complete or the participation of more than three workers, including the employee performing observations, should be carried out alongside.

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When working near unprotected live parts, it is not allowed to be positioned in such a way that these parts are located behind the worker or on both sides.

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work in the order of current operation (list of works) applies only to electrical installations with voltage up to 1000 V;

The work is carried out by operational or operational-repair personnel on the equipment assigned to this personnel, the site.

Preparation of the workplace is carried out by the same workers who later perform the necessary work.

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registration of work outfit, order or a list of works performed in the order of the current operation;

admission to work; registration of a break in work, transfer to another place, termination of work.

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issuing order, giving the order, approving the list of works performed in the order of current operation;

responsible work manager;

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In electrical installations with a voltage of up to 1000 V, when the voltage is completely removed, it is allowed to issue one by one together with all current-carrying parts together for work on busbars RU, switchboards, assemblies, as well as all connections of these installations simultaneously.

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when laying and re-laying power and control cables, testing electrical equipment, checking protection devices, measuring, interlocking, electric, telemechanics, communications, etc .;

when repairing switching devices of one connection, including when their drives are in another room;

when repairing a separate cable in a tunnel, collector, well, trench, trench;

when repairing cables (no more than two), performed in two trenches or RP and a nearby trench, when the location of workplaces allows the manufacturer to supervise the team.

At the same time, the distribution of brigade members to different workplaces is permitted. Making a transfer order from one workplace to another is not required.

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work in electrical installations with one-sided power;

disconnection, connection of cable, motor wires, other equipment;

repair of magnetic starters, knife switches, contactors, start buttons, other similar starting and switching equipment, provided it is installed outside the boards and assemblies;

repair of individual electrical receivers (electric motors, electric heaters and

repair of separately located magnetic stations and control units, care of the brush apparatus of electrical machines;

removal and installation of electricity meters, other devices and measuring instruments;

replacement of fuses, repair of lighting wiring and fittings, replacement of lamps and cleaning of lamps, located at a height of not more than 2.5 m;

other works performed on the territory of the organization, in office and residential premises, warehouses, workshops and

The above list of works is not exhaustive and may be supplemented by the decision of the head of the organization. The list should indicate what work can be performed individually.

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Admission to each substation and each connection is made out in the appropriate column of the order (Appendix No. 4 to this Regulation).

Each of the substations is allowed to be included in the work only after the full completion of work on it on the corresponding together.

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In the absence of employees who have the right to issue orders and orders, when working on preventing accidents or eliminating their consequences, it is allowed to issue orders and orders by workers from among the operating personnel who have group IV. The granting of the right to issue work orders to operational personnel must be executed in writing by the head of the organization.

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When working on the portals of the switchgear, buildings of the closed switchgear, roofs of the metal-clad switchgear, the admission of the linear brigade with the necessary clearance in the outfit should be performed by the admitting of operational personnel serving the control center.

The workman with the linear brigade can leave the RU independently, and individual members of the brigade – in the manner provided

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A member of the team supervised by the producer of the work must have Group III, with the exception of work on the OHL (clause

A brigade for each employee with group III is allowed to include one employee with group II, but the total number of brigade members with group II should not exceed three.

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The responsible work supervisor is responsible for the implementation of all the security measures specified in the attire and their sufficiency, for the additional security measures taken by him, for the completeness and quality of the target instruction of the brigade, including those carried out by the admitting and the manufacturer, and also for organizing the safe conduct of the work.

Responsible work managers are appointed employees from among the administrative and technical personnel who have group V. In those cases where individual work (work stages) must be performed under the supervision and management of the responsible work supervisor, the issuing attire must record this in the “Selected Instructions” line attire (Appendix No. 4 to this Regulation).

The responsible work supervisor is appointed when performing work:

with the use of mechanisms and lifting machines;

with disconnection of electrical equipment, with the exception of work in electrical installations, where the voltage is removed from all current-carrying parts (clause

on CL and CLN in the areas of communications and heavy traffic;

on installation and dismantling of supports of all types, replacement of elements of overhead line supports;

in places of intersection of overhead lines with other overhead lines and highways, in the span of the crossing of wires in the open switchgear;

How to band your thumb

on connecting the newly constructed overhead line;

on change of schemes of accessions of wires and cables of overhead lines;

on a disconnected circuit of a multi-chain VL with the arrangement of circuits one above the other or the number of circuits more than 2, when one or all other circuits remain energized;

at simultaneous work of two and more crews;

Phase repair of overhead lines;

under induced voltage;

without relieving the voltage on live parts with the isolation of man from the ground;

on the equipment and installations of SDTU on the device of mast transitions, testing of the CLS, when working with the equipment of the NUP (NRP), on the filters of the connections without the inclusion of the grounding knife of the coupling capacitor.

The need to appoint a responsible manager of the work determines the issuing order, who is allowed to appoint a responsible manager of the work in other works besides the listed ones.

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The admission to work on the CL in all cases is carried out by personnel serving the RU.

Works on CL, passing through the territory and in cable structures of RU, should be carried out on orders issued by personnel serving CL. The admission shall be carried out by the personnel servicing CL, after obtaining a permit from the operational personnel servicing the RU.

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It is not allowed to issue such permits in advance.

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The preparation of workplaces and admission to work in the SDTU devices located in the RU, is performed by the personnel serving the RU.

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If there are doubts about the adequacy and correctness of measures to prepare the workplace and the possibility of safely performing the work, this training should be stopped and the planned work will be postponed until the issuance of a new outfit involving technical measures that will eliminate any doubts about safety.

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when working, when the voltage is removed from all circuits, or when working under voltage, when the voltage is not removed from any chain of a multi-chain overhead line;

when working on the overhead line at their intersection;

when working on overhead lines with voltage up to 1000 V, performed alternately, if the transformer points or complete transformer points from which they are powered are disconnected;

when working in the same type on non-current parts of several OHLs that do not require their disconnection.

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If the VL is owned by other organizations, their disconnection must be confirmed by the responsible representative of the owner of the VL.

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In the absence of operational personnel, but with his permission, the responsible work supervisor in conjunction with the work producer can carry out an inspection of the workplace preparation independently.

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Admission to work on the order in cases where the preparation of the workplace is not needed, it is not necessary to carry out at the workplace, and on the VL, VLS and CL are not required.

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Admitters should be appointed from among operational personnel, with the exception of admission to the OHL, subject to the conditions listed in para.

An admittance may be an employee who is admitted to operational switching by order of the head of the organization.

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At breaks in the work during the day, the second admission is carried out by the manufacturer.

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for the compliance of the prepared workplace with the instructions of the order, additional security measures necessary for the conditions of work;

for the clarity and completeness of the instruction of the brigade members;

for the availability, serviceability and proper use of the necessary protective equipment, tools, equipment and accessories;

for the safety of the workplace fencing, posters, grounding, locking devices;

for the safe conduct of work and compliance with these rules by himself and the members of the team;

for the implementation of continuous monitoring of members of the brigade.

The manufacturer of works performed alongside in electrical installations with a voltage higher than 1000 V must have group IV, and in electrical installations with a voltage of up to 1000 V – group III, except for works in underground structures where harmful gases may appear, working under voltage, hauling and replacing wires on overhead lines with voltage up to 1000 V, suspended on overhead supports with voltage above 1000 V, during which the manufacturer must have group IV.

The manufacturer of the cares carried out by order may have group III when working in all electrical installations, except for the cases specified in paragraphs.

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PUE

electrical installations with a voltage higher than 1 kV in networks with a dead-earthed or effectively grounded neutral (see

electrical installations with a voltage higher than 1 kV in networks with a neutral insulated or grounded through an arc-suppressing reactor or resistor;

electrical installations with voltage up to 1 kV in networks with dead-earthed neutral;

electrical installations with voltage up to 1 kV in networks with insulated neutral.

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Depending on the category of premises in terms of the level of danger of electric shock to people (see Ch.

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main insulation of current-carrying parts;

fences and shells;

accommodation out of reach;

the use of ultra-low (low) voltage.

For additional protection against direct contact in electrical installations with a voltage of up to 1 kV, if there are requirements of other EMP chapters, protective cut-off devices (RCD) with a rated tripping differential current of no more than 30 mA should be used.

automatic power off;

double or reinforced insulation;

ultra low (low) voltage;

protective electrical separation circuits;

insulating (non-conductive) rooms, zones, platforms.

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When using protective electrical separation circuits in cramped rooms with a conductive floor, walls and ceiling, and if there are requirements in the relevant chapters of the PUE in other rooms with particular danger, each outlet must be powered by an individual isolating transformer or its separate winding.

When using extra-low voltage, the power supply of portable electric receivers with voltage up to 50 V must be supplied from a safe isolating transformer.

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If necessary, the input to the mobile electrical installation can be applied protective electrical separation circuits in accordance with

The device connecting the power input to the mobile electrical installation must be double insulated.

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automatic power off;

potential equalization; double or reinforced insulation; ultra low (low) voltage;

protective electrical separation circuits; insulating (non-conductive) rooms, zones, platforms.

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In determining the resistance of grounding devices, artificial and natural grounding should be taken into account.

In determining the resistivity of the earth, the seasonal value corresponding to the most unfavorable conditions should be taken as the calculated one.

Grounding devices must be mechanically strong, thermally and dynamically resistant to earth-fault currents.

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1) cases of electrical machines, transformers, apparatuses, lamps, etc .;

2) electric appliance drives;

3) frameworks of switchboards, control panels, panels and cabinets, as well as removable or opening parts, if the latter are equipped with electrical equipment with a voltage higher than 50 V AC or 120 V DC (in cases provided for by the relevant heads of the ПУЭ, above 25 V AC or 60 In DC);

4) metal structures of distribution devices, cable structures, cable sleeves, sheaths and armor of control and power cables, sheaths of wires, sleeves and pipes of electrical wiring, sheaths and supporting structures of busbars (conductors), trays, boxes, strings, cables and strips on which cables and wires (except for strings, cables and strips, along which cables with a vanished or grounded metal sheath or armor), as well as other metal structures on which electrical equipment is installed, are strengthened ;

5) metal sheaths and armor of control and power cables and wires for voltages not exceeding those specified in

6) metal cases of mobile and portable power receivers;

7) electrical equipment installed on moving parts of machine tools, machines and mechanisms.

When used as a protective measure for an automatic power-off, the specified exposed conductive parts must be connected to the dead-grounded neutral of the power supply in the TN system and grounded in IT and TT systems.

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The distance from the pipelines (plumbing, heating, sewage, internal gutters), gas pipelines and gas meters to the installation site must be at least 1 m.

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2) the grounding conductor connected to the grounding device of the electrical installation in IT and TT systems;

3) a grounding conductor connected to the re-grounding earthing on the entry to the building (if there is a grounding conductor);

4) metal pipes

communications entering the building: hot and cold water supply, sewage, heating, gas supply and

If the gas supply pipeline has an insulating insert at the input to the building, only that part of the pipeline that is relative to the insulating insert from the building side is connected to the main potential equalization system;

5) metal parts of the building frame;

6) metal parts of centralized ventilation and air conditioning systems. In the presence of decentralized ventilation and air conditioning systems, metal ducts should be connected to the PE bus of the fan and air conditioners power panels;

7) grounding device of the lightning protection system of the 2nd and 3rd categories;

8) the grounding conductor of the functional (working) grounding, if any, and there are no restrictions on the connection of the network of the working grounding to the grounding device of the protective grounding;

9) metal sheaths of telecommunication cables.

Conductive parts entering the building from the outside should be connected as close as possible to the point where they enter the building.

In order to connect to the main potential equalization system, all specified parts must be connected to the main ground bus (

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How to band your thumb

The metal frames of partitions, doors and frames used for laying cables should be connected to protective conductors.

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An artificial earthing switch intended to ground the neutral should normally be located near a generator or transformer. For in-plant substations, a grounding conductor may be located near the building wall.

If the foundation of the building where the substation is located is used as natural grounding, the transformer neutral should be grounded by connecting at least to two metal columns or to the fixtures welded to the reinforcement of at least two reinforced concrete foundations.

When the embedded substations are located on different floors of a multi-storey building, the neutral grounding of the transformers of such substations should be performed using a specially laid grounding conductor. In this case, the grounding conductor must be additionally connected to the column of the building closest to the transformer, and its resistance is taken into account when determining the resistance to spreading of the grounding device to which the transformer neutral is connected.

In all cases, measures must be taken to ensure the continuity of the grounding circuit and to protect the grounding conductor from mechanical damage.

If a current transformer is installed in the PEN conductor connecting the neutral of the transformer or generator to the PEN bus switchgear of up to 1 kV, then the grounding conductor should not be connected to the transformer or generator neutral directly, but to the PEN conductor, if possible immediately after the transformer current. In this case, the separation of the PEN conductor into PE and N-conductors in the TN-S system should also be performed behind the current transformer. The current transformer should be placed as close as possible to the neutral point of the generator or transformer.

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The specified re-groundings are performed if more frequent groundings are not required for the conditions of protection against lightning surges.

Repeated grounding of the PEN conductor in DC networks should be performed using separate artificial earthing switches, which should not have metal connections to underground pipelines.

Grounding conductors for re-grounding PEN-conductor must have dimensions not less than given in Table.

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When using RCDs that do not have overcurrent protection, their calculated check in overcurrent conditions is necessary, taking into account the protective characteristics of the higher-level apparatus that provides overcurrent protection.

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PUE

Inside the input device, the PE busbar should be used as the main ground bus.

With separate installation, the main earthing bus should be located in an accessible, serviceable place near the input device.

The cross section of the separately installed main ground bus must be at least the cross section of the PE (pen) conductor of the supply line.

The main grounding bus should be, as a rule, copper. It is allowed to use the main grounding bus made of steel. The use of aluminum tires is not allowed.

The design of the bus should provide for the possibility of individual disconnection of conductors attached to it. Disconnection should only be possible using a tool.

In places accessible only to qualified personnel (for example, shield rooms of residential buildings), the main grounding bus should be installed openly. In places accessible to unauthorized persons (for example, entrances or basements of houses), it should have a protective shell – a cabinet or drawer with a door locked with a key. A sign must be affixed on the door or on the wall above the tire.

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1) specially provided conductors:

conductors of stranded cables;

insulated or uninsulated wires in a common sheath with phase wires;

fixed insulated or uninsulated conductors;

2) open conductive parts of electrical installations:

aluminum cable sheathing;

steel pipes electrical wiring;

metal shells and busbar support structures and factory-assembled complete devices.

Metal boxes and wiring trays can be used as protective conductors, provided that the design of boxes and trays provides for such use, as indicated in the manufacturer’s documentation, and their location eliminates the possibility of mechanical damage;

3) some third-party conductive parts:

metal building structures of buildings and structures (trusses, columns, etc.);

reinforcement of reinforced concrete building construction, subject to the requirements

industrial metal structures (crane rails, galleries, platforms, elevator shafts, elevators, elevators, channel framing and

Third-party conductive parts can be used as PE conductors if they, moreover, simultaneously meet the following requirements:

1) the continuity of the electric circuit is provided either by their design, or by the corresponding compounds protected from mechanical, chemical and other damages;

2) their dismantling is impossible if measures are not provided to preserve the continuity of the circuit and its conductivity.

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– main (main) protective conductor;

– the main (main) grounding conductor or the main grounding clip;

– steel pipes of building communications and between buildings;

– metal parts of building structures, lightning protection, central heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. Such conductive parts must be interconnected at the entrance to the building.

It is recommended to re-perform additional potential equalization systems during power transmission.

For bathrooms and showers, an additional potential equalization system is mandatory and should include, among other things, the connection of third-party conductive parts extending outside the premises. If there is no electrical equipment with zero protective conductors connected to the potential equalization system, the potential equalization system should be connected to the PE bus (terminal) at the input. Heating elements embedded in the floor must be covered with a grounded metal grid or grounded metal sheath connected to a potential equalization system. As an additional protection for heating elements, it is recommended to use UZO for current up to 30 mA.

It is not allowed to use the system of local equalization of potentials for saunas, bathrooms and shower rooms.

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metal sheaths of insulating tubes and tubular wires, carrying cables for cable wiring, metal hose, and lead sheaths of wires and cables;

gas supply pipelines and other pipelines of combustible and explosive substances and mixtures, sewage pipes and central heating;

water pipes in the presence of insulating inserts.

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Unlike requirements

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The cross-sectional areas are given for the case when the protective conductors are made of the same material as the phase conductors. Sections of protective conductors of other materials must be equivalent in conductivity to the given.

Section of phase conductors, mm 2

The smallest cross-section of protective conductors, mm 2

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