Queen of England from the genus Tudor, who ruled in the years 1558-1603. Daughter
Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Rod 7 Sep 1533 Died Apr. 3 1603
Elizabeth was the daughter of the unfortunate Anne Boleyn. After the execution of her mother
despotic and cruel Henry VIII announced baby Elizabeth
illegitimate, forbade calling her a princess and kept her away from
the capital in the estate of Hatfield. However, the fact that Elizabeth was in disgrace,
In a certain sense, it benefited her, saving her from the ceremonial bustle and
intrigue of the royal court. She could spend more time on education, with
she was engaged in the teachers sent from Cambridge. Since childhood, she showed
great diligence in science, brilliant abilities and great memory.
Elizabeth especially excelled in languages: French, Italian, Latin and
g real. It was not about superficial knowledge. Latin for example she
studied to such an extent that she wrote freely and rumored on this
classic language. Knowledge of languages allowed her to do without
translators when meeting with foreign ambassadors. In 1544. when she
turned eleven years old, Elizabeth sent a letter to her stepmother
Catherine Parr, written in Italian. By the end of the same year she finished
translation from the French one of the essays of Queen Margherita of Navarre, and
soon translated into Latin by French and Italian, written by Catherine
psalms In the same year she came under the power of extensive annotations of works.
Plato, Thomas More, Erasmus of Rotterdam. Already as an adult, she loved
read in the original Seneca and when melancholia attacked her, she could spend hours
translate into English the works of this erudite-roman. Book with
childhood became the usual companion of Elizabeth, and this is reflected in
stored in Windsor Castle her portrait, written during his studies.
By the end of his reign, Henry restored Elizabeth’s rights.
succession to the throne, having appointed her to reign after the son of Edward and the eldest
sisters mary. After the death of her father, the time of anxiety began for Elizabeth and
unrest. Under the young Edward VI, the most influential position was occupied by the brothers.
Seymours One of them, Thomas, with the permission of the king began to care for the youngest
the princess. Edward was not against this marriage, but Elizabeth herself soon became
stay away from the temporary worker, and when he directly offered her his hand, she answered
evasive refusal. In 1549, Thomas was accused of minting a false coin and
beheaded. Elizabeth was also brought to trial in this case, but
she managed to completely withdraw suspicion from herself.
But the most difficult time in the life of Elizabeth came when the throne
rose her older sister Maria. Hot catholic she set out
to draw Elizabeth into her faith. It was not easy: Elizabeth
persisted. Relationships between sisters who have never been warm have become
spoil by the day. Finally, Elizabeth asked for permission to retire in
your estate Maria allowed her to leave, but she treated her sister very much
suspiciously. In January 1554, during the Protestant uprising under
led by Thomas White, Elizabeth in a hurry was taken to
London and concluded in the Tower. Two months while the investigation went on, princess
was in prison. Then she was exiled to Woodstock under strict supervision. In the autumn
1555 Mary allowed her sister to return to Hatfield.
From that time on, there was talk that it should be issued.
get married However, Elizabeth stubbornly refused and insisted that her
In November 1558, Queen Mary died. Before she dies, she is big
reluctantly declared the younger sister his heir. Wasting no time
Elizabeth hurried to London, everywhere met with unfeigned expressions
joy Her long reign began. Unhappy fate in the years of government
father and sister developed in Elizabeth hardness of character and judgment, what
rarely beginner rulers possess. She did not want to break ties with
papal throne nor insult the king of spanish. Only tough policy
Pope Paul IV, who declared the youngest daughter of Henry VIII illegitimate,
finally pushed Elizabeth away from Catholicism. The Queen herself did not like
external forms of pure protestantism. However, her Minister Cecile convinced
Elizabeth, that in the interests of her policies will keep reformed
churches. Indeed, English Catholics considered rights dubious.
Elizabeth and were always r otovy conspire in favor of the Scottish
Queen Maria Stewart, who is declared the only legitimate successor
Mary I. But, having made her choice in favor of the Reformation, Elizabeth remained
opponent of its extreme currents. In 1559, laws were passed by parliament,
finally formed the Anglican National Church. One of them
installed worship in English, the second declared English
monarch g lava church. The third prescribed a general form of worship for
throughout the country, quite in the spirit of how it was established under Henry
Viii. In 1562, 39 articles were adopted, which became the standard of confession.
Anglican Church. Along with the Catholic opposition, Elizabeth had to
face the ever-growing resistance of the Puritans, who believed that in
insufficiently reformed English church left too much
remnants of Catholicism. In 1583 the Judicial Commission was established, which
began to vigorously pursue all who did not submit to the supreme power
queens in matters of religion. In 1593 the Puritans were prescribed either
abandon their views, or leave England. In all these r
there was no fanaticism or religious bigotry, they were dictated
purely political motives.
Elizabeth was complex and controversial in many ways.
As a woman, she inherited some moral shortcomings of her mother:
greed, vanity, passion for clothes and jewelry, but had not one
of her attractive qualities. She had red hair, long bony
face and gruff voice. However, she loved praise for her beauty and
retained this weakness even in old age. Until the death of Elizabeth
mercilessly painted, whitewashed and diligently watched fashion. Outfits
in general were her passion. Wanting to produce something special
it seems that the queen changed her toilets several times a day. With
300 carriages were required to move her luggage, and after her death
Elizabeth left 3,000 dresses. However, judging by the portraits that have reached us,
she did not have much taste and wore such a large amount
jewelry, sewn, pinned and hung everywhere, that it could
take for indian idol. However, she had a cheerful and cheerful
character and able to remain calm even in the most difficult years of life.
Her conversation, full of not only humor, but grace and sharpness, testified
about the knowledge of life and subtle insight.
As Empress Elizabeth had many virtues, but here too
talk about the dark sides of her character. The habit of pretending
developed in it for many years of persecution, was its main feature.
In addition, Elizabeth was selfish and very prone to perfidy. Traction
autocracy increased in her over the years, as well as the love of flattery. But
the desire to command never overshadowed in the queen clarity of thought. She is
always the rules are not with stubbornness of unrest, but with calculation. how
cold-blooded rider, she knew the limit to which you can pull
bridle, and never crossed that limit. Youth deprivations made
Elizabeth thrifty. In her old age she was reproached even for stinginess. Savings in
government spending, generally speaking, is very commendable, sometimes taking
with her immoderate dimensions. So, at critical moments invasion invincible
armada, she tried with all her might to cut down the composition of her fleet, the number
army, the amount of amounts and provisions. Thanks also not
was among its virtues. She immoderately, with both hands, gave
his favorites, but his most devoted ministers, such as Lord Borley
or secretary Wol-singham, left without any reward. However, in all
important matters Elizabeth unchanged showed hardness, energy and mind. In her
the rule of England benefited greatly from the wars on the continent, gained in
1588 famous victory over the Spanish Invincible Armada. Sea
trade and industry have achieved remarkable success.
Already the first parliament, convened in the reign of Elizabeth, turned to
with a respectful request to choose a husband among those representatives
Christian dynasties who were looking for her hands. Same respectful requests
resumed almost annually with increasing persistence and strong
annoyed the queen. She had to choose one of two things – or get married,
or appoint your successor. But Elizabeth did not want either one or the other.
However, she didn’t confess to it and played out for a quarter of a century
comedy engagement with great pleasure because she liked
red tape, accompanied by the composition of madrigals and the presentation of gifts.
She inspired hopes of success for the Swedish king, then the Spanish, then
French, but there is no doubt that she never had a serious
intentions to get married.
Back in the early years of the reign, Elizabeth talked several times about her
intention to die virgin. This desire seemed strange to many and even
feigned. In addition, the queen was not at all alien to men and experienced to
such delicate affection for their favorites that it imposed a strong shadow on
her reputation as a virgin. Still, though constantly in love, she,
apparently, did not allow any of her fans to go last
limit. It can be assumed that there was some kind of physical or
the psychological reason that made for Elizabeth marriage or even the thought of
physically close to a man impossible. "I hate the very thought of
marriage, ”she told Lord Sussex once,“ for reasons that are not
I will reveal even to the most devoted soul". Something for the reason, so it remains
secret, but the Spanish envoy, having made careful inquiries, wrote to his
the king with full confidence that Elizabeth cannot have children,
"even if you wanted". With all this, the Queen for many years played with her
marriage, revel in the thought of him and attracted them to many men.
The first favorite of Elizabeth was a young handsome Robert Ded-Lei, Count
Leicester. The princess met him during her imprisonment in the Tower,
where Leicester, like her, was under investigation. From the first meeting
Elizabeth felt an irresistible attraction to him. Becoming the queen
she granted Leicester to the chief-stallmeister and the gentlemen of the Order of the Garter with
in addition many castles and manors. But she didn’t stop at that.
over the years leicester inspired a vague hope of the possibility of marriage
with her. Showered with all possible favors, Leicester played for many years
the first role at the court, but did not wait for the fulfillment of their hopes. By
to the testimony of contemporaries, he, besides courageous beauty, had no
other virtues. In 1588 he died at the age of 58, and the queen became
provide unequivocal attentions to his stepson, Count Robert Essex.
Elizabeth was then 56 years old, and the favorite – 22. Nevertheless, she flirted
as a young girl, fluttered with him at the balls, annoyed him with jealousy and
whims. Earl of Essex, although he had before his eyes the sad experience of his
stepfather, let himself be carried away by the same chimeras about a possible marriage with the queen. By
compared to Leicester, he was more honest, nobler, kinder, and more talented.
The queen’s gracious attitude toward himself he tried to justify by the military
feats that Leicester was never capable of. But at the same time, he was
more fervor. Having spent several years as a favorite, but never having achieved
the real voice of love, Essex became hot-tempered, impatient, between
quarrels began to occur between him and the queen. Describe, for example, such
happening. In 1598, during a dispute in the Privy Council, Elizabeth abruptly cut off
Essex and told him to shut up. Insulted by Mr. Luby of the Soul, he wanted
leave, but the queen stopped him – grabbed her ears from behind and shouted: "Has gone
The favorite took up his sword and exclaimed: "I would not tolerate such audacity
even from your father! I am your subject, but not a slave!" This trick came to him from
hands But in 1601 Essex allowed himself to be drawn into a real conspiracy to
overthrow Elizabeth and enthrone the Scottish king James VI.
His ideas were revealed. Essex appeared on trial in February of the same
year was beheaded.
Elizabeth’s life after the death of the favorite was sad. Her health is fast
upset, and together with bodily suffering sometimes appeared
blurred mental abilities. She repeated now and then: "Essex!
Essex!"and filled with inconsolable tears. Doctors suggested she go to bed
the bed, but she replied that then she would surely die. All the floor in her
the bedroom was lined with pillows. Without undressing, she fell in one corner, then
in the other, but then again rose and continued to rush around the room. She doesn’t
allowed to change clothes and dresses on herself, wrapped in a royal robe and
did not remove from the disheveled r tin crown. On the evening of March 24, she fell into
oblivion, which woke up only on April 2. On questions of the Chancellor: to whom
will now pass to the throne, Elizabeth vaguely named Jacob, the king
Scottish. On the evening of April 3, she was gone.