Hold hands

Queen of England from the genus Tudor, who ruled in the years 1558-1603. Daughter

Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Rod 7 Sep 1533 Died Apr. 3 1603

Elizabeth was the daughter of the unfortunate Anne Boleyn. After the execution of her mother

despotic and cruel Henry VIII announced baby Elizabeth

illegitimate, forbade calling her a princess and kept her away from

the capital in the estate of Hatfield. However, the fact that Elizabeth was in disgrace,

In a certain sense, it benefited her, saving her from the ceremonial bustle and

intrigue of the royal court. She could spend more time on education, with

she was engaged in the teachers sent from Cambridge. Since childhood, she showed

great diligence in science, brilliant abilities and great memory.

Elizabeth especially excelled in languages: French, Italian, Latin and

g real. It was not about superficial knowledge. Latin for example she

studied to such an extent that she wrote freely and rumored on this

classic language. Knowledge of languages ​​allowed her to do without

translators when meeting with foreign ambassadors. In 1544. when she

turned eleven years old, Elizabeth sent a letter to her stepmother

Catherine Parr, written in Italian. By the end of the same year she finished

translation from the French one of the essays of Queen Margherita of Navarre, and

soon translated into Latin by French and Italian, written by Catherine

psalms In the same year she came under the power of extensive annotations of works.

Plato, Thomas More, Erasmus of Rotterdam. Already as an adult, she loved

read in the original Seneca and when melancholia attacked her, she could spend hours

translate into English the works of this erudite-roman. Book with

childhood became the usual companion of Elizabeth, and this is reflected in

stored in Windsor Castle her portrait, written during his studies.

By the end of his reign, Henry restored Elizabeth’s rights.

succession to the throne, having appointed her to reign after the son of Edward and the eldest

sisters mary. After the death of her father, the time of anxiety began for Elizabeth and

unrest. Under the young Edward VI, the most influential position was occupied by the brothers.

Seymours One of them, Thomas, with the permission of the king began to care for the youngest

the princess. Edward was not against this marriage, but Elizabeth herself soon became

stay away from the temporary worker, and when he directly offered her his hand, she answered

evasive refusal. In 1549, Thomas was accused of minting a false coin and

beheaded. Elizabeth was also brought to trial in this case, but

she managed to completely withdraw suspicion from herself.

But the most difficult time in the life of Elizabeth came when the throne

rose her older sister Maria. Hot catholic she set out

to draw Elizabeth into her faith. It was not easy: Elizabeth

persisted. Relationships between sisters who have never been warm have become

spoil by the day. Finally, Elizabeth asked for permission to retire in

your estate Maria allowed her to leave, but she treated her sister very much

suspiciously. In January 1554, during the Protestant uprising under

led by Thomas White, Elizabeth in a hurry was taken to

London and concluded in the Tower. Two months while the investigation went on, princess

was in prison. Then she was exiled to Woodstock under strict supervision. In the autumn

1555 Mary allowed her sister to return to Hatfield.

From that time on, there was talk that it should be issued.

get married However, Elizabeth stubbornly refused and insisted that her

left alone.

In November 1558, Queen Mary died. Before she dies, she is big

reluctantly declared the younger sister his heir. Wasting no time

Elizabeth hurried to London, everywhere met with unfeigned expressions

joy Her long reign began. Unhappy fate in the years of government

father and sister developed in Elizabeth hardness of character and judgment, what

rarely beginner rulers possess. She did not want to break ties with

papal throne nor insult the king of spanish. Only tough policy

Pope Paul IV, who declared the youngest daughter of Henry VIII illegitimate,

finally pushed Elizabeth away from Catholicism. The Queen herself did not like

external forms of pure protestantism. However, her Minister Cecile convinced

Elizabeth, that in the interests of her policies will keep reformed

churches. Indeed, English Catholics considered rights dubious.

Elizabeth and were always r otovy conspire in favor of the Scottish

Queen Maria Stewart, who is declared the only legitimate successor

Mary I. But, having made her choice in favor of the Reformation, Elizabeth remained

opponent of its extreme currents. In 1559, laws were passed by parliament,

finally formed the Anglican National Church. One of them

installed worship in English, the second declared English

monarch g lava church. The third prescribed a general form of worship for

throughout the country, quite in the spirit of how it was established under Henry

Viii. In 1562, 39 articles were adopted, which became the standard of confession.

Anglican Church. Along with the Catholic opposition, Elizabeth had to

Hold hands

face the ever-growing resistance of the Puritans, who believed that in

insufficiently reformed English church left too much

remnants of Catholicism. In 1583 the Judicial Commission was established, which

began to vigorously pursue all who did not submit to the supreme power

queens in matters of religion. In 1593 the Puritans were prescribed either

abandon their views, or leave England. In all these r

Hold hands

there was no fanaticism or religious bigotry, they were dictated

purely political motives.

Elizabeth was complex and controversial in many ways.

As a woman, she inherited some moral shortcomings of her mother:

greed, vanity, passion for clothes and jewelry, but had not one

of her attractive qualities. She had red hair, long bony

face and gruff voice. However, she loved praise for her beauty and

retained this weakness even in old age. Until the death of Elizabeth

mercilessly painted, whitewashed and diligently watched fashion. Outfits

in general were her passion. Wanting to produce something special

it seems that the queen changed her toilets several times a day. With

300 carriages were required to move her luggage, and after her death

Elizabeth left 3,000 dresses. However, judging by the portraits that have reached us,

she did not have much taste and wore such a large amount

jewelry, sewn, pinned and hung everywhere, that it could

take for indian idol. However, she had a cheerful and cheerful

character and able to remain calm even in the most difficult years of life.

Her conversation, full of not only humor, but grace and sharpness, testified

about the knowledge of life and subtle insight.

As Empress Elizabeth had many virtues, but here too

talk about the dark sides of her character. The habit of pretending

developed in it for many years of persecution, was its main feature.

In addition, Elizabeth was selfish and very prone to perfidy. Traction

autocracy increased in her over the years, as well as the love of flattery. But

the desire to command never overshadowed in the queen clarity of thought. She is

always the rules are not with stubbornness of unrest, but with calculation. how

cold-blooded rider, she knew the limit to which you can pull

bridle, and never crossed that limit. Youth deprivations made

Elizabeth thrifty. In her old age she was reproached even for stinginess. Savings in

government spending, generally speaking, is very commendable, sometimes taking

with her immoderate dimensions. So, at critical moments invasion invincible

armada, she tried with all her might to cut down the composition of her fleet, the number

army, the amount of amounts and provisions. Thanks also not

was among its virtues. She immoderately, with both hands, gave

his favorites, but his most devoted ministers, such as Lord Borley

or secretary Wol-singham, left without any reward. However, in all

important matters Elizabeth unchanged showed hardness, energy and mind. In her

the rule of England benefited greatly from the wars on the continent, gained in

1588 famous victory over the Spanish Invincible Armada. Sea

trade and industry have achieved remarkable success.

Already the first parliament, convened in the reign of Elizabeth, turned to

with a respectful request to choose a husband among those representatives

Christian dynasties who were looking for her hands. Same respectful requests

resumed almost annually with increasing persistence and strong

annoyed the queen. She had to choose one of two things – or get married,

or appoint your successor. But Elizabeth did not want either one or the other.

However, she didn’t confess to it and played out for a quarter of a century

comedy engagement with great pleasure because she liked

red tape, accompanied by the composition of madrigals and the presentation of gifts.

She inspired hopes of success for the Swedish king, then the Spanish, then

French, but there is no doubt that she never had a serious

intentions to get married.

Back in the early years of the reign, Elizabeth talked several times about her

intention to die virgin. This desire seemed strange to many and even

feigned. In addition, the queen was not at all alien to men and experienced to

such delicate affection for their favorites that it imposed a strong shadow on

her reputation as a virgin. Still, though constantly in love, she,

apparently, did not allow any of her fans to go last

limit. It can be assumed that there was some kind of physical or

the psychological reason that made for Elizabeth marriage or even the thought of

physically close to a man impossible. "I hate the very thought of

marriage, ”she told Lord Sussex once,“ for reasons that are not

I will reveal even to the most devoted soul". Something for the reason, so it remains

secret, but the Spanish envoy, having made careful inquiries, wrote to his

the king with full confidence that Elizabeth cannot have children,

"even if you wanted". With all this, the Queen for many years played with her

marriage, revel in the thought of him and attracted them to many men.

The first favorite of Elizabeth was a young handsome Robert Ded-Lei, Count

Leicester. The princess met him during her imprisonment in the Tower,

where Leicester, like her, was under investigation. From the first meeting

Elizabeth felt an irresistible attraction to him. Becoming the queen

she granted Leicester to the chief-stallmeister and the gentlemen of the Order of the Garter with

in addition many castles and manors. But she didn’t stop at that.

over the years leicester inspired a vague hope of the possibility of marriage

with her. Showered with all possible favors, Leicester played for many years

the first role at the court, but did not wait for the fulfillment of their hopes. By

to the testimony of contemporaries, he, besides courageous beauty, had no

other virtues. In 1588 he died at the age of 58, and the queen became

provide unequivocal attentions to his stepson, Count Robert Essex.

Elizabeth was then 56 years old, and the favorite – 22. Nevertheless, she flirted

as a young girl, fluttered with him at the balls, annoyed him with jealousy and

whims. Earl of Essex, although he had before his eyes the sad experience of his

stepfather, let himself be carried away by the same chimeras about a possible marriage with the queen. By

compared to Leicester, he was more honest, nobler, kinder, and more talented.

The queen’s gracious attitude toward himself he tried to justify by the military

feats that Leicester was never capable of. But at the same time, he was

more fervor. Having spent several years as a favorite, but never having achieved

the real voice of love, Essex became hot-tempered, impatient, between

quarrels began to occur between him and the queen. Describe, for example, such

happening. In 1598, during a dispute in the Privy Council, Elizabeth abruptly cut off

Essex and told him to shut up. Insulted by Mr. Luby of the Soul, he wanted

leave, but the queen stopped him – grabbed her ears from behind and shouted: "Has gone

The favorite took up his sword and exclaimed: "I would not tolerate such audacity

even from your father! I am your subject, but not a slave!" This trick came to him from

hands But in 1601 Essex allowed himself to be drawn into a real conspiracy to

overthrow Elizabeth and enthrone the Scottish king James VI.

His ideas were revealed. Essex appeared on trial in February of the same

year was beheaded.

Elizabeth’s life after the death of the favorite was sad. Her health is fast

upset, and together with bodily suffering sometimes appeared

blurred mental abilities. She repeated now and then: "Essex!

Essex!"and filled with inconsolable tears. Doctors suggested she go to bed

the bed, but she replied that then she would surely die. All the floor in her

the bedroom was lined with pillows. Without undressing, she fell in one corner, then

in the other, but then again rose and continued to rush around the room. She doesn’t

allowed to change clothes and dresses on herself, wrapped in a royal robe and

did not remove from the disheveled r tin crown. On the evening of March 24, she fell into

oblivion, which woke up only on April 2. On questions of the Chancellor: to whom

Hold hands

will now pass to the throne, Elizabeth vaguely named Jacob, the king

Scottish. On the evening of April 3, she was gone.

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