Walking around the equator
It is estimated that during the day a person makes up to 30 thousand steps, that is, about 20 kilometers. For every 5.5 years, he quietly makes a path equal to the circumference of the equator.
How much does a human skeleton weigh?
The mass of a human skeleton is about 11 kilograms.
When is a person higher: in the morning or in the evening?
Due to the flattening of intervertebral cartilage, a person’s height decreases by about 1.5 cm in the evening. By the age of 80, a person’s height decreases by 5–7 cm compared with the age of forty.
How many bones in the skull?
The human skull consists of 23 bones. Only two bones of the skull — mandibular and sublingual — are mobile, the rest are firmly connected by sutures.
Stronger than brick and granite
Bone material is 30 times stronger than bricks and 2.5 times stronger than granite. A large femur can withstand a vertical load of one and a half tons.
It withstands 350 kilograms.
The strongest ligament of the human body – the bertinium ligament, which strengthens the hip joint – can withstand a load of 350 kilograms.
How many muscles are there in a person?
The amount of muscle in a person is not the same for all people. Within the normal range, it ranges from 400 to 680 muscles. If all these muscles had tightened, they would have caused a pressure of about 25 tons. A grasshopper has about 900 muscles, and in some species of caterpillars it is even about 4,000. The total weight of all muscles in men is 40% of the total body weight, in women it is 30%.
Which body loses a lot of heat?
The efficiency of human muscles is 20%. The remaining 80% is spent on heat loss.
Where are the strongest muscles?
The strongest ones are located on both sides of the mouth and are responsible for the compression of the jaws. They are able to develop an effort of about 70 kilograms.
Who loses more energy: crying or laughing people?
According to French neuropathologists, the crying person has 43 face muscles, while the laughing one is only 17. Thus, it is energetically more beneficial to laugh than to cry.
The time when the highest muscular activity is manifested?
It is noted that the muscles work most effectively at 13 o’clock. 30 minutes.
Oxygen-consuming body. Who is he?
Up to 60% of the oxygen entering the body is consumed by the muscles.
Rhythm – your assistant
Rhythm is an important element of work, and everyone should learn from their hearts in this regard: if you work rhythmically, then work will be productive and have enough strength to work for a long time.
When the biological clock breaks
Frequent violations of the day-night physiological cycle can lead to a painful breakdown of the person’s internal biological clocks.
How much air can you breathe?
Lung ventilation (the number of breaths multiplied by the amount of inhaled air) in a healthy person reaches 5–9 liters per minute. At rest, a person performs an average of 16 respiratory movements per minute. It is about 23,000 per day. About 7,000 liters of air pass through the lungs. The minute volume of human breathing (the amount of air passed through the lungs in one minute) is at rest 5–8 liters per minute, and during physical work can reach more than 100 liters per minute.
A person at rest consumes 400–500 liters of oxygen per day, making 12–20 breaths and exhales per minute. The horse’s breathing rate is 12 breaths and breaths per minute, rats 60, canaries 108.
Negatively charged ions of air gases are friends of health; they make a person vigorous, workable.
The ciliated epithelium of the human respiratory tract carries up to 20–30 g of dust per day.
Blood plasma … and the ancient seas
The composition of blood plasma is reminiscent of the composition of the water of the ancient Earth seas, in which life originated.
Twice the length of the equator
The total length of the blood capillaries in the human body is approximately 100,000 kilometers. This is 2.5 times the length of the Earth’s equator, and the total internal area is 2,400 m 2.
Over 60 years of normal, not very stressful life, the human heart makes more than 2,000,000,000 cuts. The same work would have done the tractor, if he lifted a boulder weighing 65 tons from sea level to a height of 5,500 meters.
When is more cholesterol?
In the autumn and winter, 100 ml of the blood of a healthy person contain 20–250 mg of cholesterol, and in the summer and spring only 170–180 mg.
The heart has a shirt – a layer of connective tissue; there is a small amount of fluid between the heart and the shirt. The near-heart bag (“heart shirt”) protects the working heart muscle.
Flattened red balls
Blood corpuscles of red color, or erythrocytes, whose total surface is 3,400 m 2. Every day, about 2,000,000,000 die in their bodies, which is 0.01% of their total number. The total surface area of all red blood cells is 3,400 m 2. In each mm3 of blood, 5,000,000 red blood cells, and in all five liters contained in an adult’s body, 25,000,000,000,000. If you put all these red blood cells in a row, the resulting chain extends 200,000 kilometers and surrounds the globe five times at the equator.
“Sprints” within us
Almost all cells of the human body have nuclei that control all the physiological processes in the cell itself and are involved in the process of cell division. The only exception is red blood cells. They are born with the nucleus, but already in the early stages of development, lose it, thereby losing the ability to reproduce. New red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow from stem cells. Every second, about 2,500,000 red blood cells are produced and about the same amount dies. In one day, the erythrocyte passes in the blood vessels for about 15 kilometers, supplying the tissues with oxygen and taking carbon dioxide from them. During its existence, one erythrocyte on average travels 1,800 kilometers.
They live to die
Blood cells are constantly dying off and being replaced by new ones. The life of red blood cells (red blood cells) lasts 90–125 days, leukocytes (white blood cells) lasts from several hours to several months, depending on the type of white blood cells. In the blood of an adult, about a billion red blood cells and five billion white blood cells die every hour. They will be replaced by new blood cells. During the day, 25 grams of blood undergo complete regeneration.
Blood capillaries are 10 times thicker than hair.
That’s the speed!
Within one minute, the heart throws about 4 liters of blood into the aorta. The speed of movement in the aorta is 0.5 m / s, and through the capillaries, the blood flows at a speed of 0.5 mm / s. A complete circulation of blood through both circles of blood circulation takes place in 21-22 seconds.
Special blood substance
Each erythrocyte contains 265 million hemoglobin molecules. The assembly of its molecule takes only 90 seconds. 6.5 6 1014 hemoglobin molecules are synthesized in the human body every second. In 100 ml of human blood contains 13-16 g of hemoglobin. One gram of hemoglobin can bind up to 1.34 ml of oxygen. At rest, about 4 l / min flows through the human heart, which provides about 400 ml of oxygen to the tissues.
Oh, those “thin tubes”!
The thickness of the artery walls is 0.8–0.9 mm. The diameter of various human arteries is 0.4–2.5 cm. The average diameter of capillaries in humans is about 7 microns, which is slightly less than the diameter of the erythrocyte. In arteries, blood volume averages 950 ml.
So called the liver of the ancient Tibetan doctors. It stores nutrient reserves and, if a person is hungry, she turns them into sugar, thereby feeding him. In a state of rest in humans, up to 50% of the blood may be in the “blood depot” – the liver and spleen, from which, if necessary, is released into the bloodstream. The blood flow in the kidneys is 420 ml / min, in the heart – 84, in the liver – 5.7, in the brain – 53, in the striated musculature – only 2.7 ml / min. The liver consumes 10 times more oxygen than the muscle that is equal in weight to it and produces more heat. It is a powerful protective barrier in the way of blood flow from the digestive organs to other organs. The liver most effectively decomposes alcohol between 6 and 8 in the evening. 1.5 liters of blood flow through the liver within one minute, and up to 2,000 liters per day.
Women fight more often
The adult’s heart pumps about 10,000 liters of blood per day. The normal pulse of a man at rest is 60–80 beats per minute. A woman’s heart beats 6–8 times more often. Heavy exercise increases the pulse to 200 beats per minute. The pulse rate for an elephant is 20, for a bull and a frog – 25, for a rabbit – 200, for a mouse – 500.
Even the saber is blunt
The edge of the sword when hitting the tooth enamel is blunt. By hard enamel can be compared with quartz.
How much, two or four?
Milk teeth are replaced by permanent ones. The last molar tooth is usually cut by the age of 18–20, and sometimes later, when a person “acquires wisdom thanks to his teachings,” as Hippocrates thought. This tooth he called the tooth “wisdom.” Half of humanity has only two, not four wisdom teeth.
The exposed part of our skeleton
The specific weight of tooth tooth enamel is 2.9–3.05 g / cm 2. The dentine of the tooth has a specific weight of only 2.2 g / cm 2. The dentin of an adult’s tooth contains about 65% mineral salts, 28% organic matter and 8% water. Dental cement contains about 30% organic matter, more than 55% calcium phosphate, about 8% calcium carbonate, and calcium and magnesium fluorides.
The most painful part of the human body is the teeth. Per square centimeter of skin usually accounts for no more than 200 pain receptors, and in the same area of dentin of the tooth – from 15,000 to 30,000 receptors. At the border of enamel and dentin there are even more of them – up to 75,000 receptors.
“Acorn” or “stomach”?
The word “stomach” is derived from the word “acorn” (in the old days “little acorns were called stomachs”). At 1 cm 2 gastric mucosa accounts for a hundred gastric glands. They are located close to each other. Unlike other digestive juices, bile contains almost no enzymes.
During the day, about 1 liter of saliva, 3 liters of gastric juice, 2 liters of pancreatic juice, 3.5 intestinal juice, 2 liter of bile are secreted in humans. A person has an average of one liter of saliva per day.
What does the hour of the day mean for the stomach?
Most of the gastric juice is formed at 13 o’clock, even if the person did not eat anything.
And is it all in us?
The length of the intestine in humans exceeds the length of the body by 3-4 times. The total surface area of the jejunum villi is 37 m 2, the duodenal – 1.3 m 2, and the ileum – 5.3 m 2.
Are there more gases in us?
In the process of fermentation of food gruel in the right (ascending) section of the large intestine, hydrogen and carbon dioxide are formed, and in the process of decay in the left (descending) section – methane and hydrogen sulfide. All of this is mixed with air that enters the intestines in the process of eating with food. When digesting lunch, about 15 liters of gases are formed.
On one cm 2 of the inner surface of the intestine 3 000–4 000 villi. Each is covered with 3,000 cells, which in turn have 100 suction tubes each. The absorption surface in the small intestines is about 5 m 2,
About 70 000 000 000 cells of the intestinal epithelium die each day, each of which lives only 1-2 days.
She needs to breathe, move, think
At rest and on an empty stomach, the human body produces so much energy per day that it would be enough to heat 20 liters of water from 10 ºС to boiling. The heat released during the work of the woodcutter for eight hours is enough to heat 100 liters of water to a boil.
Who are the intestinal bacteria afraid of?
In lingonberries and cranberries a lot of benzoic acid. It kills putrefactive bacteria in the intestines.
What are we made of?
The human body consists of 100,000 billion cells. For comparison: the body of an elephant consists of 6,500,000 billion cells.
Water is 80% of the body weight of the child and 70% of the body weight of an adult. In human brain cells 80% are contained, in muscles – 76%, in bones – about 25% of water. A sip of water is for men 20 milliliters of liquid, and for a woman is 14. The richest water in the human body is the vitreous body of the eye, in which its 99% and the poorest is tooth enamel. In its composition of only 0.2%.
Is water important?
Loss of moisture in the amount of 6–8% of body weight causes a person to have faint fainting, 10% – hallucinations and a violation of the swallowing reflex. Loss of 12% of the fluid causes cardiac arrest.
Are there gases too?
More than 96% of the mass of the human body are four chemical elements. The share of oxygen accounts for about 60% of the mass, the share of carbon – about 20%. They are followed by hydrogen – 10% and nitrogen – 4%.
Not only there, but also from there!
A person per day can produce 0.5–12 liters of sweat, which contains 9899% water, 0.1% urea, urinary, lactic, pyruvic, citric acid, ammonia, creatinine, serine, fats, volatile fatty acids, cholesterol, aromatic hydroxy acids , acetone, mineral salts.
Not removed “clothes”
The skin is the heaviest organ in the human body. It weighs an average of 2.7 kg. The skin does not let water, germs, dirt. Protects us from bumps, pricks, bites. About 2% of the oxygen consumed by the person enters the body through the skin. A man of average height loses about 800,000 microparticles of skin every hour, and an average of 675 grams per year. By seventy years, the total loss of skin is a little more than 47 kg, that is, 70% of the average weight of a person. The human body releases through the skin about 0.5 liters of water per day. Solid matter is released about 10 grams.
Who can tell us if it’s cold or hot?
The entire skin surface of the human body contains about 250,000 “cold” receptors and only 30,000 “heat”. The temperature of the skin is different in different parts of the body. So, in the armpit it is 36.6ºС, then on the belly – 34ºС, and on the face – 25ºС. Blood and internal organs have a temperature of 37.2–38.5ºС.
Is it better to be clean or dirty?
On one cm 2 dirty skin has about 40 000 microbes.
In our skin, there are 250,000 nerve endings that react to cold, 30,000 respond to heat, and about 1,000,000 respond to pain.
The skin is less sensitive to injections at 9 am and is most permeable to cosmetics between 6 and 8 pm.
Human hair is 500 times thicker than the walls of a soap bubble, 5 times thicker than the capillary, 12 times thicker than the walls of the alveoli, and 20 times thicker than cobwebs. Hair grows in newborns at a rate of 0.2 mm per day, later – up to 0.3–0.5 mm per day. Hair of eyebrows, eyelashes and axillary hair live for 3-4 months, hair of the head is 4-6 years. This month the hair grows up to one centimeter. About 100 hairs die off on the head every day. Dead hair may not fall out immediately, so sometimes up to 20% of dead hair accumulates on the head.
Spit – not only girlish beauty
The longest spit in one Japanese woman is 3 meters, she has grown it for 20 years. The longest hair was worn by Swami Pandarasannadi, head of the Indian monastery Tirudaduturai. In 1949, his hair length was 7 meters 92 centimeters.
The longest beard belonged to Hans Langset – 5 meters 33 centimeters, and the longest mustache were at the Swede Birger Pellas – 2 meters 90 centimeters.
The tips of all twenty fingers on our limbs carry dense flat horn formations – nails. Fingernails are primates. The nail grows due to the epithelium of the nail bed. Nails protect especially sensitive ends of fingers. The nail on the hand grows at the rate of one hundredth of a millimeter per day, and on the leg – five hundredths. For a year, a fingernail on a fingernail is lengthened by a total of three centimeters. The longest nail on the hand (on the thumb of the left hand) reaches a length of 101.6 centimeters. It belonged to the Indian Sridhar Chillar. The total length of the nails on the finger of his left hand, when measured in March 1990, was 4 meters 40 centimeters. He hasn’t cut his nails since 1952.
Why do we cry?
Children cry to attract attention, to express their emotions: fear, anger or joy. And so that with tears from the body of harmful substances that are produced from pain and suffering. In addition, when we blink, tears wash the eyeball, cleaning it from dust and germs. A healthy human body produces about 0.5 liters of tear fluid per year. Even the most severe man shed daily from 1-3 milliliters of tears.
The total length of the renal tubules is 120 kilometers. In both kidneys, humans have about 2,000,000 nephrons. During the day, the kidneys pass 2,000 liters of blood through themselves, and this is the whole cistern. An adult produces 1 200–1 600 ml of urine per day and should be discharged with the urine of 15–45 mg of oxalic acid.
What are uroliths?
The chemical composition of uroliths – kidney stones – can be different. 40% of uroliths are oxalates (salts of oxalic acid), 27% – phosphates (salts of orthophosphoric acid), 12–15% – urates (salts of uric acid), 2% cystine, xanthine and protein stones and 20–30% – stones mixed type
Sophisticated optical device
Up to 14 months in newborn girls and up to 16 months in boys there is a period of complete non-perception of flowers. Then comes the perception of red, then green, and still later blue. Formation of color perception ends at 7.5 years for girls and for 8 years for boys. The eye is able to distinguish between 130-250 pure colors and 5-10 000 000 000 mixed colors.
After an hour in the dark
After one hour in the dark, the photosensitivity of the eye increases 200 times.
Sticks and cones
The retina of the human eye contains 125,000,000 rods and 6,500,000 cones, and, taken together, they are so sensitive that a person could theoretically see the light of a candle at a distance of 200 kilometers.
Hearing, smell, touch
“Hello, I can’t hear you!”
The average human ear contains 2,500 cells that respond to sounds. The upper limit of frequencies perceived by us reaches 16–20 million hertz. Over the years, ear sensitivity, especially to high sounds, decreases.
Tasty when + 24ºС
On the surface of the tongue are about 9,000 nerve endings that react to taste. They function best at 24 ° C.
The surface of the nose olfactory area is only 5 cm 2, but about 1,000,000 nerve endings are located on it. The sensation of smell occurs when the excitation of at least 40 nerve endings.
That is why he is freezing!
The coldest part of the human body is the nose. The temperature of its tip usually does not exceed + 22ºС.
Giant amount and … one percent
The human nervous system consists of 10 000 000 000 neurons and 70 000 000 000 auxiliary cells. Of this gigantic amount, only one percent performs independent work, that is, it receives signals and controls the muscles; the remaining 99% are mediating cells.
The center of all centers or the main organ of the mind
In three years, the human brain is already 80% developed. It reaches its highest development by about 20 years. In the future, there is a decrease in its mass. The cerebral cortex accounts for approximately 44% of the brain volume. The surface of the cortex is generally 1,468–1,670 cm 2.
We are in third place
A person is in third place in brain mass (1,400 g) in wildlife after an elephant (5 kg) and whale (2.5 kg).
These are the areas!
The total area of the cerebral cortex in humans is an average of 83,591 mm 2, chimpanzees – 24 353 mm 2, dogs – 6 523 mm 2, rabbits – 843 mm 2, rats – 254 mm 2.
Nature is not fair
Since the age of thirty in humans, 30,000 to 50,000 nerve cells of the brain die every day.
Water and nerve cell
The nerve cell – the neuron – contains 65–68% water and 32–35% solids, among which 68–70% are proteins. 20–25% are lipids, 2–5% are nucleic acids, 1–2% are carbohydrates.
With him vessels in a tone
Nitrogen (II) oxide may form in the human body. It provides communication between neurons and maintains vascular tone.
The bigger, the better
The larger the diameter of the nerve fiber, the faster the excitation spreads through it. In warm-blooded animals, the excitation rate is 0.5–120 m / s.
No human action can take place without the participation of the nervous system. To translate the body from a horizontal to a vertical position, the human brain sends through nerves to the muscles hundreds of nerve impulses – signals.
As part of the cranial nerves, 2,600,000 nerve fibers enter the brain, and 140,000 go out. About half of the outgoing fibers carry orders to the muscles of the eyeball, controlling fast and complex eye movements. The rest of the nerves control facial expressions, chewing, swallowing and the activity of the internal organs. Of the incoming nerve fibers 2 million – visual.
Men and women
- The male brain weighs 200 grams more than the female.
- A young man aged 15–24 years old fails 6 times more often than girls of the same age.
- Among the outstanding mathematicians, men are 12 times more than women.
- Deviations from the norm of color vision are much more common in men (8%) than in women (0.5%).
- In men, lung volume is 20% larger than in women.
- Snore in a dream 48% of men and only 22% of women.
- Boys are more often than girls, are left-handed and generally fluent in their left hand, which is explained by the leading role of the right hemisphere of the male brain.
- 80% of all stuttering people are men.
- The average blood volume in men is 5.2 liters, and in women – 3.9 liters.
- The average heart mass of a man is 330 g – 250 g.
- Girls start talking earlier than boys.
- A woman’s sense of smell is 20% better than that of a man.
- Mental depression in women are twice as common as in men.
- Musical hearing in women is better than in men: there are 1 man for 6 non-fake women.
- Three quarters of all migraines are women.
- Women are twice as sensitive to alcohol as men.
- Women prefer sweet food, and men prefer salty.
- In women, it sees the right eye more sharply and hears the right ear better, and in the case of a man – the opposite.
- Adipose tissue is 11% of the weight of a man and 23% of the weight of a woman.
- Women, more often men, suffer tooth decay.
- 42% of men and 62% of women complain of insomnia.