It is a genus of treponema pallidum (treponema pallidum, pale treponema). This genus also includes pathogens of yaws and pints. Treponema pallidum is a spiral-shaped bacterium of the Spirochaetiaceae family (Spirochete), which causes an infectious venereal disease, syphilis. Pathology is characterized by a wave-like course and manifests itself as a characteristic clinic. Infection occurs predominantly through sex, making syphilis related to STIs.
Currently, the number of sexually transmitted diseases, which represent a real threat to human life. Treponema pallidum is a dangerous microbe that causes a systemic disease. At the site of the spirochete implantation, a primary pathological focus is formed – a hard chancre. Then syphilitic rashes appear on the skin, regional lymph nodes increase. Respectively, irreversible changes are possible.
Treponema pallidum is a gram-negative microorganism having a thin spiral twisted into 8-12 small curls. It is not necessary to perceive conventional laboratory dyes.
Spirochete is a strict anaerob that grows well in an oxygen-free environment. But despite this Treponema has flagella and fibrils. Bacterial cells and bacterial cells; It quickly penetrates into living cells and rapidly multiplies by transverse division.
Pale treponema has a three-layer cell wall, cytoplasm and organelles: ribosomes, mesosomes, vacuoles. Ribosomes synthesize proteins, and mesosomes provide respiration and metabolism. Enzymes and antigens are contained in the cytoplasmic membrane. The body of the bacterium is covered with a mucous, structureless capsule that performs a protective function.
Microbes are resistant to high temperatures. When heated, they die for 20 minutes, when dried for 15 minutes, and when boiled – instantly. Antiseptics and disinfectants quickly destroy pale treponema. Ultraviolet, light, alcohol, alkali, vinegar, arsenic, mercury, chlorine-containing disinfectants have a destructive effect on the bacterium. Treponema pallidum is resistant to some antibiotics.
Pale treponema exhibits its pathogenic properties in a humid and warm environment. In humans, a site is the lymph nodes. The microbes are concentrated on the blood of the syphilis.
Chicken embryos. It is cultivated in the testicles of a rabbit. In these cells, the microbe grows and grows well, fully preserving its properties and the conditions of the animal.
Treponemas grow on blood or serum agar in an oxygen-free environment. However, they lose their pathogenic properties, but retain antigenic. Pathogenic treponems are able to ferment mannitol, utilize lactate and form specific metabolites.
Factors and components of the pathogenicity and virulence of bacteria include:
- Protein adhesins to ensure the fixation of a microbe on a host cell,
- The body of the body,
- The formation of L-forms,
- Lipopolysaccharides of the outer membrane,
- Fragments of disease cells penetrating deep into tissues
- The ability to invade intercellular endothelial compounds,
- Antigenic variability.
It is a direct toxic effect on the synthesis of macromolecules – DNA, RNA and proteins. T. pallidum antigens are used in the Wasserman reaction for serodiagnosis of syphilis. Under adverse conditions, the spirochete is transformed into L-forms, which ensure that its resistance to antibacterial agents and antibodies.
Syphilis is a strict anthroponosis. Infection persists only in the human body. Entrance gates of infection are: damaged squamous or cylindrical epithelium of the oral cavity or genital organs.
The spread of infectious agents occurs:
- Sexually through intercourse through sperm,
- Everyday through linens, hygiene products, cosmetic accessories, with a kiss,
- During childbirth, as well as through
- Transplacental in late pregnancy
- Hematogenous direct blood transfusion, during operations, using a common syringe among drug addicts.
Medical professionals – dentists, cosmetologists. Infection occurs during medical manipulations and skin damage procedures. He has been infected with multiple sexual partners. In the case of the patient, the patient must be in a state of disrepair.
first manifestations of the disease
It is the skin of the mucous membrane that is the most infectious and the mucous membrane of the genital organs. At this time, many spirochaetes are released into the environment.
Currently a large number of patients with extragenital chancrees located on the mouth, pharynx, and anus are registered. The syphilides are on the palms and soles. The tertiary period of syphilis has recently been developed in a very rare way.
Incubation is characterized by the lymph nodes and blood lines. Period duration – from 3 weeks to 3 months.
- Patients at the site of the nodule, which got the name hard chancre. This skin lesion is located in the mouth, in the mouth, in the vagina, in the mouth, in the mouth and in the skin. The size of the ulcer can vary from dwarf – from poppy seed to gigantic. They are multiple, bipolar and single. Almost all patients have enlarged lymph nodes in the area of infection, usually inguinal.
- 10 weeks after the onset of hard chancre, secondary syphilis occurs, which is characterized by generalization of infection. Microbes enter the blood and disseminate in a hematogenous manner throughout the body. Spirochete causes specific inflammation. The secondary pink rash appears on the skin, representing secondary syphilides. They appear paroxysmal, disappear without treatment, and then reappear.
The rash in secondary syphilis is roseolous, papular or pustular. Intoxication signs develop: fever, weakness, weakness, pharyngitis, myalgia, arthralgia, drastic weight loss. Erythematous tonsillitis, angular stomatitis or cheilitis, generalized lymphadenitis, leukoderma, alopecia, and widespread genital warts. This will be the case when you are on the line.
Congenital syphilis develops as a result of fetal intrauterine infection. This is a pathological triad of symptoms: congenital deafness, keratitis, getchinson teeth.
Diagnosis of the patient and the patient of the clinical trials,
- Microscopic examination of the biomaterial. Bacterioscopy of biopsy The preparation of the microscopy is obtained from the obtained material. Smear stained by Romanovsky-Giemsa. Treponema has a pale pink color. Live microbes in an uncolored and unfixed microscope. Darkfield or phase contrast microscopy is used for their detection. For a dark-field microscopy, they are a special apparatus. There is a white spiral-like strip. Fluorescence microscopy is used to detect treponemas in various clinical materials.
- Serological reactions allow to identify treponema in the blood. Usually, the patients are given the Wasserman reaction. These are the non-specific reactions that can be prevented. Specific reactions include: immunofluorescence, hemagglutination, immobilization of pale treponemas. The species-specific antibodies are highly sensitive. IgM indicate an acute phase of inflammation. They are determined using the immunofluorescence reaction and enzyme immunoassay. IgG indicate a chronic process. They are determined by all other methods – RW, RNGA, RPGA, RIBT.
- ELISA – The most common type of immunoassays, which can be recognized in the blood to treponema pallidum. 2 weeks after infection, IgM and IgA appear in the blood. After 4 weeks, the IgG appears in the blood, peaks and decreases slowly.
- Detection of total antibodies to treponema is an important diagnostic method. IgM is a sign of recent infection, an IgG is a chronic form. Of the pathological process. Total IgG / IgM antibodies to Treponema pallidum are the most optimal diagnostic method compared to others.
- PCR diagnostics possesses high sensitivity and sufficient specificity.
Syphilis is treated by a dermatovenerologist. He chooses to take into account the patient’s individual characteristics. Comprehensive treatment contributes to complete recovery, which must be confirmed by laboratory.
The pathogen is treponema pallidum. Patients are prescribed large amounts of antibiotics, to which the microbe is sensitive. Penicillins “Benzylpenicillin”, tetracyclines “Doxycycline”, macrolides “Clarithromycin”, “Sumamed”, cephalosporins “Cefazolin”, fluoroquinolones “Ciprofloxacin” are usually used. Antibiotic therapy continues for 2 months. Treatment of pregnant women is also carried out.
Immunostimulation, vitamin therapy, physiotherapy and help patients recovering from disease. Preventive therapy.
Video: dermatovenereologist about the treatment of syphilis
Preventive measures consist of personal hygiene, It is recommended that you receive it. These funds must be in the home first aid kit.
With the preventive purpose examined:
- Pregnant women
- Employees of kindergartens, schools, medical and medical institutions,
- Patients entering inpatient treatment.
It is a modern antimicrobial therapy that helps to get rid of the pathology. It will be necessary to select the correct stage of the disease. Self-treatment of syphilis is strictly prohibited. A pathology that is not completely cured can become chronic. Such a patient is dangerous to others.
Syphilis is a social affliction whose treatment must be approached seriously and responsibly.